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Steel Making

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Carburizing Material


The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also the
slowest, but is often used mixed with something that will evolve
large volumes of carbon monoxide or hydrocarbon gas on being heated.
A great variety of materials is used, a few of them being charcoal
(both wood and bone), charred leather, crushed bone, horn, mixtures
of charcoal and barium carbonate, coke and heavy oils, coke treated
with alkaline carbonates, peat, charcoal mixed with common salt,
saltpeter, resin, flour, potassium bichromate, vegetable fibre,
limestone, various seed husks, etc. In general, it is well to avoid
complex mixtures.

H. L. Heathcote, on analyzing seventeen different carburizers, found
that they contained the following ingredients:

Per cent
Moisture 2.68 to 26.17
Oil 0.17 to 20.76
Carbon (organic) 6.70 to 54.19
Calcium phosphate 0.32 to 74.75
Calcium carbonate 1.20 to 11.57
Barium carbonate nil to 42.00
Zinc oxide nil to 14.50
Silica nil to 8.14
Sulphates (SO3) trace to 3.45
Sodium chloride nil to 7.88
Sodium carbonate nil to 40.00
Sulphides (S) nil to 2.80

Carburizing mixtures, though bought by weight, are used by volume,
and the weight per cubic foot is a big factor in making a selection.
A good mixture should be porous, so that the evolved gases, which
should be generated at the proper temperature, may move freely
around the steel objects being carburized; should be a good conductor
of heat; should possess minimum shrinkage when used; and should
be capable of being tamped down.

Many secret mixtures are sold, falsely claimed to be able to
convert inferior metal into crucible tool steel grade. They are
generally nothing more than mixtures of carbonaceous and cyanogen
compounds possessing the well-known carburizing properties of those

Next: Quenching

Previous: Rate Of Absorption

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