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Steel Making

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Carburizing Material


The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also the
slowest, but is often used mixed with something that will evolve
large volumes of carbon monoxide or hydrocarbon gas on being heated.
A great variety of materials is used, a few of them being charcoal
(both wood and bone), charred leather, crushed bone, horn, mixtures
of charcoal and barium carbonate, coke and heavy oils, coke treated
with alkaline carbonates, peat, charcoal mixed with common salt,
saltpeter, resin, flour, potassium bichromate, vegetable fibre,
limestone, various seed husks, etc. In general, it is well to avoid
complex mixtures.

H. L. Heathcote, on analyzing seventeen different carburizers, found
that they contained the following ingredients:

Per cent
Moisture 2.68 to 26.17
Oil 0.17 to 20.76
Carbon (organic) 6.70 to 54.19
Calcium phosphate 0.32 to 74.75
Calcium carbonate 1.20 to 11.57
Barium carbonate nil to 42.00
Zinc oxide nil to 14.50
Silica nil to 8.14
Sulphates (SO3) trace to 3.45
Sodium chloride nil to 7.88
Sodium carbonate nil to 40.00
Sulphides (S) nil to 2.80

Carburizing mixtures, though bought by weight, are used by volume,
and the weight per cubic foot is a big factor in making a selection.
A good mixture should be porous, so that the evolved gases, which
should be generated at the proper temperature, may move freely
around the steel objects being carburized; should be a good conductor
of heat; should possess minimum shrinkage when used; and should
be capable of being tamped down.

Many secret mixtures are sold, falsely claimed to be able to
convert inferior metal into crucible tool steel grade. They are
generally nothing more than mixtures of carbonaceous and cyanogen
compounds possessing the well-known carburizing properties of those

Next: Quenching

Previous: Rate Of Absorption

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