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High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...



Carburizing Material






Category: CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING

The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also the
slowest, but is often used mixed with something that will evolve
large volumes of carbon monoxide or hydrocarbon gas on being heated.
A great variety of materials is used, a few of them being charcoal
(both wood and bone), charred leather, crushed bone, horn, mixtures
of charcoal and barium carbonate, coke and heavy oils, coke treated
with alkaline carbonates, peat, charcoal mixed with common salt,
saltpeter, resin, flour, potassium bichromate, vegetable fibre,
limestone, various seed husks, etc. In general, it is well to avoid
complex mixtures.

H. L. Heathcote, on analyzing seventeen different carburizers, found
that they contained the following ingredients:

Per cent
Moisture 2.68 to 26.17
Oil 0.17 to 20.76
Carbon (organic) 6.70 to 54.19
Calcium phosphate 0.32 to 74.75
Calcium carbonate 1.20 to 11.57
Barium carbonate nil to 42.00
Zinc oxide nil to 14.50
Silica nil to 8.14
Sulphates (SO3) trace to 3.45
Sodium chloride nil to 7.88
Sodium carbonate nil to 40.00
Sulphides (S) nil to 2.80

Carburizing mixtures, though bought by weight, are used by volume,
and the weight per cubic foot is a big factor in making a selection.
A good mixture should be porous, so that the evolved gases, which
should be generated at the proper temperature, may move freely
around the steel objects being carburized; should be a good conductor
of heat; should possess minimum shrinkage when used; and should
be capable of being tamped down.

Many secret mixtures are sold, falsely claimed to be able to
convert inferior metal into crucible tool steel grade. They are
generally nothing more than mixtures of carbonaceous and cyanogen
compounds possessing the well-known carburizing properties of those
substances.





Next: Quenching

Previous: Rate Of Absorption



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