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Steel Making

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Carburizing Material


The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also the
slowest, but is often used mixed with something that will evolve
large volumes of carbon monoxide or hydrocarbon gas on being heated.
A great variety of materials is used, a few of them being charcoal
(both wood and bone), charred leather, crushed bone, horn, mixtures
of charcoal and barium carbonate, coke and heavy oils, coke treated
with alkaline carbonates, peat, charcoal mixed with common salt,
saltpeter, resin, flour, potassium bichromate, vegetable fibre,
limestone, various seed husks, etc. In general, it is well to avoid
complex mixtures.

H. L. Heathcote, on analyzing seventeen different carburizers, found
that they contained the following ingredients:

Per cent
Moisture 2.68 to 26.17
Oil 0.17 to 20.76
Carbon (organic) 6.70 to 54.19
Calcium phosphate 0.32 to 74.75
Calcium carbonate 1.20 to 11.57
Barium carbonate nil to 42.00
Zinc oxide nil to 14.50
Silica nil to 8.14
Sulphates (SO3) trace to 3.45
Sodium chloride nil to 7.88
Sodium carbonate nil to 40.00
Sulphides (S) nil to 2.80

Carburizing mixtures, though bought by weight, are used by volume,
and the weight per cubic foot is a big factor in making a selection.
A good mixture should be porous, so that the evolved gases, which
should be generated at the proper temperature, may move freely
around the steel objects being carburized; should be a good conductor
of heat; should possess minimum shrinkage when used; and should
be capable of being tamped down.

Many secret mixtures are sold, falsely claimed to be able to
convert inferior metal into crucible tool steel grade. They are
generally nothing more than mixtures of carbonaceous and cyanogen
compounds possessing the well-known carburizing properties of those

Next: Quenching

Previous: Rate Of Absorption

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