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Steel Making

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Carburizing Material


The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also the
slowest, but is often used mixed with something that will evolve
large volumes of carbon monoxide or hydrocarbon gas on being heated.
A great variety of materials is used, a few of them being charcoal
(both wood and bone), charred leather, crushed bone, horn, mixtures
of charcoal and barium carbonate, coke and heavy oils, coke treated
with alkaline carbonates, peat, charcoal mixed with common salt,
saltpeter, resin, flour, potassium bichromate, vegetable fibre,
limestone, various seed husks, etc. In general, it is well to avoid
complex mixtures.

H. L. Heathcote, on analyzing seventeen different carburizers, found
that they contained the following ingredients:

Per cent
Moisture 2.68 to 26.17
Oil 0.17 to 20.76
Carbon (organic) 6.70 to 54.19
Calcium phosphate 0.32 to 74.75
Calcium carbonate 1.20 to 11.57
Barium carbonate nil to 42.00
Zinc oxide nil to 14.50
Silica nil to 8.14
Sulphates (SO3) trace to 3.45
Sodium chloride nil to 7.88
Sodium carbonate nil to 40.00
Sulphides (S) nil to 2.80

Carburizing mixtures, though bought by weight, are used by volume,
and the weight per cubic foot is a big factor in making a selection.
A good mixture should be porous, so that the evolved gases, which
should be generated at the proper temperature, may move freely
around the steel objects being carburized; should be a good conductor
of heat; should possess minimum shrinkage when used; and should
be capable of being tamped down.

Many secret mixtures are sold, falsely claimed to be able to
convert inferior metal into crucible tool steel grade. They are
generally nothing more than mixtures of carbonaceous and cyanogen
compounds possessing the well-known carburizing properties of those

Next: Quenching

Previous: Rate Of Absorption

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