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Steel Making

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Carburizing Material


The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also the
slowest, but is often used mixed with something that will evolve
large volumes of carbon monoxide or hydrocarbon gas on being heated.
A great variety of materials is used, a few of them being charcoal
(both wood and bone), charred leather, crushed bone, horn, mixtures
of charcoal and barium carbonate, coke and heavy oils, coke treated
with alkaline carbonates, peat, charcoal mixed with common salt,
saltpeter, resin, flour, potassium bichromate, vegetable fibre,
limestone, various seed husks, etc. In general, it is well to avoid
complex mixtures.

H. L. Heathcote, on analyzing seventeen different carburizers, found
that they contained the following ingredients:

Per cent
Moisture 2.68 to 26.17
Oil 0.17 to 20.76
Carbon (organic) 6.70 to 54.19
Calcium phosphate 0.32 to 74.75
Calcium carbonate 1.20 to 11.57
Barium carbonate nil to 42.00
Zinc oxide nil to 14.50
Silica nil to 8.14
Sulphates (SO3) trace to 3.45
Sodium chloride nil to 7.88
Sodium carbonate nil to 40.00
Sulphides (S) nil to 2.80

Carburizing mixtures, though bought by weight, are used by volume,
and the weight per cubic foot is a big factor in making a selection.
A good mixture should be porous, so that the evolved gases, which
should be generated at the proper temperature, may move freely
around the steel objects being carburized; should be a good conductor
of heat; should possess minimum shrinkage when used; and should
be capable of being tamped down.

Many secret mixtures are sold, falsely claimed to be able to
convert inferior metal into crucible tool steel grade. They are
generally nothing more than mixtures of carbonaceous and cyanogen
compounds possessing the well-known carburizing properties of those

Next: Quenching

Previous: Rate Of Absorption

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