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Steel Making

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Carburizing Material


The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also the
slowest, but is often used mixed with something that will evolve
large volumes of carbon monoxide or hydrocarbon gas on being heated.
A great variety of materials is used, a few of them being charcoal
(both wood and bone), charred leather, crushed bone, horn, mixtures
of charcoal and barium carbonate, coke and heavy oils, coke treated
with alkaline carbonates, peat, charcoal mixed with common salt,
saltpeter, resin, flour, potassium bichromate, vegetable fibre,
limestone, various seed husks, etc. In general, it is well to avoid
complex mixtures.

H. L. Heathcote, on analyzing seventeen different carburizers, found
that they contained the following ingredients:

Per cent
Moisture 2.68 to 26.17
Oil 0.17 to 20.76
Carbon (organic) 6.70 to 54.19
Calcium phosphate 0.32 to 74.75
Calcium carbonate 1.20 to 11.57
Barium carbonate nil to 42.00
Zinc oxide nil to 14.50
Silica nil to 8.14
Sulphates (SO3) trace to 3.45
Sodium chloride nil to 7.88
Sodium carbonate nil to 40.00
Sulphides (S) nil to 2.80

Carburizing mixtures, though bought by weight, are used by volume,
and the weight per cubic foot is a big factor in making a selection.
A good mixture should be porous, so that the evolved gases, which
should be generated at the proper temperature, may move freely
around the steel objects being carburized; should be a good conductor
of heat; should possess minimum shrinkage when used; and should
be capable of being tamped down.

Many secret mixtures are sold, falsely claimed to be able to
convert inferior metal into crucible tool steel grade. They are
generally nothing more than mixtures of carbonaceous and cyanogen
compounds possessing the well-known carburizing properties of those

Next: Quenching

Previous: Rate Of Absorption

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