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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...



Carburizing Material






Category: CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING

The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also the
slowest, but is often used mixed with something that will evolve
large volumes of carbon monoxide or hydrocarbon gas on being heated.
A great variety of materials is used, a few of them being charcoal
(both wood and bone), charred leather, crushed bone, horn, mixtures
of charcoal and barium carbonate, coke and heavy oils, coke treated
with alkaline carbonates, peat, charcoal mixed with common salt,
saltpeter, resin, flour, potassium bichromate, vegetable fibre,
limestone, various seed husks, etc. In general, it is well to avoid
complex mixtures.

H. L. Heathcote, on analyzing seventeen different carburizers, found
that they contained the following ingredients:

Per cent
Moisture 2.68 to 26.17
Oil 0.17 to 20.76
Carbon (organic) 6.70 to 54.19
Calcium phosphate 0.32 to 74.75
Calcium carbonate 1.20 to 11.57
Barium carbonate nil to 42.00
Zinc oxide nil to 14.50
Silica nil to 8.14
Sulphates (SO3) trace to 3.45
Sodium chloride nil to 7.88
Sodium carbonate nil to 40.00
Sulphides (S) nil to 2.80

Carburizing mixtures, though bought by weight, are used by volume,
and the weight per cubic foot is a big factor in making a selection.
A good mixture should be porous, so that the evolved gases, which
should be generated at the proper temperature, may move freely
around the steel objects being carburized; should be a good conductor
of heat; should possess minimum shrinkage when used; and should
be capable of being tamped down.

Many secret mixtures are sold, falsely claimed to be able to
convert inferior metal into crucible tool steel grade. They are
generally nothing more than mixtures of carbonaceous and cyanogen
compounds possessing the well-known carburizing properties of those
substances.





Next: Quenching

Previous: Rate Of Absorption



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