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Steel Making

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...



Carburizing Material






Category: CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING

The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also the
slowest, but is often used mixed with something that will evolve
large volumes of carbon monoxide or hydrocarbon gas on being heated.
A great variety of materials is used, a few of them being charcoal
(both wood and bone), charred leather, crushed bone, horn, mixtures
of charcoal and barium carbonate, coke and heavy oils, coke treated
with alkaline carbonates, peat, charcoal mixed with common salt,
saltpeter, resin, flour, potassium bichromate, vegetable fibre,
limestone, various seed husks, etc. In general, it is well to avoid
complex mixtures.

H. L. Heathcote, on analyzing seventeen different carburizers, found
that they contained the following ingredients:

Per cent
Moisture 2.68 to 26.17
Oil 0.17 to 20.76
Carbon (organic) 6.70 to 54.19
Calcium phosphate 0.32 to 74.75
Calcium carbonate 1.20 to 11.57
Barium carbonate nil to 42.00
Zinc oxide nil to 14.50
Silica nil to 8.14
Sulphates (SO3) trace to 3.45
Sodium chloride nil to 7.88
Sodium carbonate nil to 40.00
Sulphides (S) nil to 2.80

Carburizing mixtures, though bought by weight, are used by volume,
and the weight per cubic foot is a big factor in making a selection.
A good mixture should be porous, so that the evolved gases, which
should be generated at the proper temperature, may move freely
around the steel objects being carburized; should be a good conductor
of heat; should possess minimum shrinkage when used; and should
be capable of being tamped down.

Many secret mixtures are sold, falsely claimed to be able to
convert inferior metal into crucible tool steel grade. They are
generally nothing more than mixtures of carbonaceous and cyanogen
compounds possessing the well-known carburizing properties of those
substances.





Next: Quenching

Previous: Rate Of Absorption



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