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Steel Making

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves


Low-carbon sleeves are carburized
and pushed on malleable-iron differential-case hubs. Formerly,
these sleeves were given two treatments after carburization in
order to refine the case and the core, and then sent to the grinding
department, where they were ground to a push fit for the hubs. After
this they were pushed on the hubs. By the method now employed,
the first treatment refines the core, and on the second treatment,
the sleeves are pushed on the hub and at the same time hardened.
This method cuts out the internal grinding time, pressing on hubs,
and haulage from one department to another. Also, less work is
lost through splitting of the sleeves.

The machine for pushing the sleeves on is shown in Fig. 64. At
A is the stem on which the hot sleeve B is to be pushed. The
carburized sleeves are heated in an automatic furnace, which takes
them cold at the back and feeds them through to the front, by which
time they are at the correct temperature. The loose mandrel C
is provided with a spigot on the lower end, which fits the hole
in the differential-case hub. The upper end is tapered as shown
and acts as a pilot for the ram D. The action of pushing on and
quenching is similar to the action of the Gleason tempering machine,
with the exception that water instead of oil is used as a quenching
medium. The speed of operation depends on a number of variables,
but from 350 to 500 can be heated and pressed on in 11 hr.

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