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Steel Making

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves


Low-carbon sleeves are carburized
and pushed on malleable-iron differential-case hubs. Formerly,
these sleeves were given two treatments after carburization in
order to refine the case and the core, and then sent to the grinding
department, where they were ground to a push fit for the hubs. After
this they were pushed on the hubs. By the method now employed,
the first treatment refines the core, and on the second treatment,
the sleeves are pushed on the hub and at the same time hardened.
This method cuts out the internal grinding time, pressing on hubs,
and haulage from one department to another. Also, less work is
lost through splitting of the sleeves.

The machine for pushing the sleeves on is shown in Fig. 64. At
A is the stem on which the hot sleeve B is to be pushed. The
carburized sleeves are heated in an automatic furnace, which takes
them cold at the back and feeds them through to the front, by which
time they are at the correct temperature. The loose mandrel C
is provided with a spigot on the lower end, which fits the hole
in the differential-case hub. The upper end is tapered as shown
and acts as a pilot for the ram D. The action of pushing on and
quenching is similar to the action of the Gleason tempering machine,
with the exception that water instead of oil is used as a quenching
medium. The speed of operation depends on a number of variables,
but from 350 to 500 can be heated and pressed on in 11 hr.

Next: Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels

Previous: Hardening Operation

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