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Steel Making

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves


Low-carbon sleeves are carburized
and pushed on malleable-iron differential-case hubs. Formerly,
these sleeves were given two treatments after carburization in
order to refine the case and the core, and then sent to the grinding
department, where they were ground to a push fit for the hubs. After
this they were pushed on the hubs. By the method now employed,
the first treatment refines the core, and on the second treatment,
the sleeves are pushed on the hub and at the same time hardened.
This method cuts out the internal grinding time, pressing on hubs,
and haulage from one department to another. Also, less work is
lost through splitting of the sleeves.

The machine for pushing the sleeves on is shown in Fig. 64. At
A is the stem on which the hot sleeve B is to be pushed. The
carburized sleeves are heated in an automatic furnace, which takes
them cold at the back and feeds them through to the front, by which
time they are at the correct temperature. The loose mandrel C
is provided with a spigot on the lower end, which fits the hole
in the differential-case hub. The upper end is tapered as shown
and acts as a pilot for the ram D. The action of pushing on and
quenching is similar to the action of the Gleason tempering machine,
with the exception that water instead of oil is used as a quenching
medium. The speed of operation depends on a number of variables,
but from 350 to 500 can be heated and pressed on in 11 hr.

Next: Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels

Previous: Hardening Operation

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