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Steel Making

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves


Low-carbon sleeves are carburized
and pushed on malleable-iron differential-case hubs. Formerly,
these sleeves were given two treatments after carburization in
order to refine the case and the core, and then sent to the grinding
department, where they were ground to a push fit for the hubs. After
this they were pushed on the hubs. By the method now employed,
the first treatment refines the core, and on the second treatment,
the sleeves are pushed on the hub and at the same time hardened.
This method cuts out the internal grinding time, pressing on hubs,
and haulage from one department to another. Also, less work is
lost through splitting of the sleeves.

The machine for pushing the sleeves on is shown in Fig. 64. At
A is the stem on which the hot sleeve B is to be pushed. The
carburized sleeves are heated in an automatic furnace, which takes
them cold at the back and feeds them through to the front, by which
time they are at the correct temperature. The loose mandrel C
is provided with a spigot on the lower end, which fits the hole
in the differential-case hub. The upper end is tapered as shown
and acts as a pilot for the ram D. The action of pushing on and
quenching is similar to the action of the Gleason tempering machine,
with the exception that water instead of oil is used as a quenching
medium. The speed of operation depends on a number of variables,
but from 350 to 500 can be heated and pressed on in 11 hr.

Next: Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels

Previous: Hardening Operation

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