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Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors


The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrometer is
dependent on the difference in temperature between its hot junction,
inside the furnace, and the cold junction, or opposite end of the
thermo-couple to which the copper wires are connected. If the
temperature or this cold junction rises and falls, the indications
of the instrument will vary, although the hot junction in the furnace
may be at a constant temperature.

A cold-junction temperature of 75 deg.F., or 25 deg.C., is usually adopted
in commercial pyrometers, and the pointer on the pyrometer should
stand at this point on the scale when the hot junction is not heated.
If the cold-junction temperature rises about 75 deg.F., where base metal
thermo-couples are used, the pyrometer will read approximately 1 deg.
low for every 1 deg. rise in temperature above 75 deg.F. For example, if the
instrument is adjusted for a cold-junction temperature of 75 deg., and
the actual cold-junction temperature is 90 deg.F., the pyrometer will
read 15 deg. low. If, however, the cold-junction temperature falls below
75 deg.F., the pyrometer will read high instead of low, approximately
1 deg. for every 1 deg. drop in temperature below 75 deg.F.

With platinum thermo-couples, the error is approximately 1/2 deg. for
1 deg. change in temperature.

Next: Correction By Zero Adjustment

Previous: Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer

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