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Steel Making

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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