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Steel Making

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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