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Steel Making

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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