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Steel Making

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...



Bessemer Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.





Next: Open Hearth Process




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