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Steel Making

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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