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Steel Making

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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