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Steel Making

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...



Bessemer Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.





Next: Open Hearth Process




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