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Steel Making

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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