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Steel Making

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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