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Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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