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Steel Making

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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