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Steel Making

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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