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Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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