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Steel Making

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...



Bessemer Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.





Next: Open Hearth Process




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