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Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...



Bessemer Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.





Next: Open Hearth Process




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