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Steel Making

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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