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Steel Making

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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