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Steel Making

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...



Bessemer Process






Category: STEEL MAKING

The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.





Next: Open Hearth Process




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