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Steel Making

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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