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Steel Making

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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