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Steel Making

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Bessemer Process


The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into
a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then
in blowing a current of air through holes in the bottom of the
vessel into the liquid metal.

The air blast burns the white hot metal, and the temperature increases.
The action is exactly similar to what happens in a fire box under
forced draft. And in both cases some parts of the material burn
easier and more quickly than others. Thus it is that some of the
impurities in the pig iron--including the carbon--burn first, and
if the blast is shut off when they are gone but little of the iron
is destroyed. Unfortunately sulphur, one of the most dangerous
impurities, is not expelled in the process.

A bessemer converter is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the
details of its construction. This shows how the air blast is forced
in from one side, through the trunnion, and up through the metal.
Where the steel is finished the converter is tilted, or swung on
its trunnions, the blast turned off, and the steel poured out of
the top.

Next: Open Hearth Process

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