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Steel Making

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...



A Chromium-cobalt Steel






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tungsten,
its red-hardness properties depending on chromium and cobalt instead
of tungsten. It is known as P. R. K-33 steel. It does not require
the high temperature of the tungsten steels, hardening at 1,830 to
1,850 deg.F. instead of 2,200 deg. or even higher, as with the tungsten.

This steel is forged at 1,900 to 2,000 deg.F. and must not be worked
at a lower temperature than 1,600 deg.F. It requires soaking in the
fire more than the tungsten steels. It can be normalized by heating
slowly and thoroughly to 1,475 deg.F., holding this for from 10 to 20
min. according to the size of the piece and cooling in the open
air, protected from drafts.

A peculiarity of this steel is that it becomes non-magnetic at or
above 1,960 deg.F. and the magnetic quality is not restored by cooling.
Normalizing as above, however, restores the magnetic qualities. This
enables the user to detect any tools which have been overheated,
with a horseshoe magnet.

It is sometimes advantageous to dip tools, before heating for hardening,
in ordinary fuel or quenching oil. The oil leaves a thin film of
carbon which tends to prevent decarbonization, giving a very hard
surface.

For other makes of high-speed steel used in lathe and planer tools
the makers recommend that the tools be cut from the bar with a
hack saw or else heated and cut with a chisel. The heating should
be very slow until the steel reaches a red after which it can be
heated more rapidly and should only be forged at a high heat. It
can be forged at very high heats but care should be taken not to
forge at a low heat. The heating should be uniform and penetrate
clear to the center of the bar before forging is begun. Reheat
as often as necessary to forge at the proper heat.

After forging cool in lime before attempting to harden. Do not
attempt to harden with the forging heat as was sometimes done with
the carbon tools.

For hardening forged tools, heat slowly up to a bright red and
then rapidly until the point of the tool is almost at a melting
heat. Cool in a blast of cold, dry air. For large sizes of steel,
cool in linseed oil or in fish oil as is most convenient. If the
tools are to be used for finishing cuts heat to a bright yellow
and quench in oil. Grind for use on a sand wheel or grindstone
in preference to an emery or an artificial abrasive wheel.

For hardening milling and similar cutters, preheat to a bright
red, place the cutter on a round bar of suitable size, and revolve
it quickly over a very hot fire. Heat as high as possible without
melting the points of the teeth and cool in a cold blast of dry
air or in fish oil.

Light fragile cutters, twist drills, taps and formed cutters may
be heated almost white and then dipped in fish oil for hardening.
Where possible it is better to give an even higher heat and cool
in the blast of cold, dry air as previously recommended.





Next: Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc



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