Informational Site NetworkInformational Site Network
   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel


The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tungsten,
its red-hardness properties depending on chromium and cobalt instead
of tungsten. It is known as P. R. K-33 steel. It does not require
the high temperature of the tungsten steels, hardening at 1,830 to
1,850 deg.F. instead of 2,200 deg. or even higher, as with the tungsten.

This steel is forged at 1,900 to 2,000 deg.F. and must not be worked
at a lower temperature than 1,600 deg.F. It requires soaking in the
fire more than the tungsten steels. It can be normalized by heating
slowly and thoroughly to 1,475 deg.F., holding this for from 10 to 20
min. according to the size of the piece and cooling in the open
air, protected from drafts.

A peculiarity of this steel is that it becomes non-magnetic at or
above 1,960 deg.F. and the magnetic quality is not restored by cooling.
Normalizing as above, however, restores the magnetic qualities. This
enables the user to detect any tools which have been overheated,
with a horseshoe magnet.

It is sometimes advantageous to dip tools, before heating for hardening,
in ordinary fuel or quenching oil. The oil leaves a thin film of
carbon which tends to prevent decarbonization, giving a very hard

For other makes of high-speed steel used in lathe and planer tools
the makers recommend that the tools be cut from the bar with a
hack saw or else heated and cut with a chisel. The heating should
be very slow until the steel reaches a red after which it can be
heated more rapidly and should only be forged at a high heat. It
can be forged at very high heats but care should be taken not to
forge at a low heat. The heating should be uniform and penetrate
clear to the center of the bar before forging is begun. Reheat
as often as necessary to forge at the proper heat.

After forging cool in lime before attempting to harden. Do not
attempt to harden with the forging heat as was sometimes done with
the carbon tools.

For hardening forged tools, heat slowly up to a bright red and
then rapidly until the point of the tool is almost at a melting
heat. Cool in a blast of cold, dry air. For large sizes of steel,
cool in linseed oil or in fish oil as is most convenient. If the
tools are to be used for finishing cuts heat to a bright yellow
and quench in oil. Grind for use on a sand wheel or grindstone
in preference to an emery or an artificial abrasive wheel.

For hardening milling and similar cutters, preheat to a bright
red, place the cutter on a round bar of suitable size, and revolve
it quickly over a very hot fire. Heat as high as possible without
melting the points of the teeth and cool in a cold blast of dry
air or in fish oil.

Light fragile cutters, twist drills, taps and formed cutters may
be heated almost white and then dipped in fish oil for hardening.
Where possible it is better to give an even higher heat and cool
in the blast of cold, dry air as previously recommended.

Next: Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc

Add to Add to Reddit Add to Digg Add to Add to Google Add to Twitter Add to Stumble Upon
Add to Informational Site Network

Viewed 5049