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Steel Making

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer


Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the Brown
indicating high resistance pyrometer with the exception that the
pointer is depressed at intervals of every 10 sec. upon contact-making
devices. No current passes through the pointer which simply depresses
the upper contact device tipped with platinum, which in turn comes
in contact with the lower contact device, platinum-tipped, and the
circuit is completed through these two contacts. The current is very
small, about 1/10 amp., as it is only necessary to operate the relay
which in turn operates the switch or valve. A small motor is used to
depress the pointer at regular intervals. The contact-making device
is adjustable throughout the scale range of the instrument, and an
index pointer indicates the point on the instrument at which the
temperature is being controlled. The space between the two contacts
on the high and low side, separated by insulating material, is
equivalent to 1 per cent of the scale range. A control of temperature
is therefore possible within 1 per cent of the total scale range.
Figure 131 shows this attached to a small furnace.

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