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Steel Making

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer


Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the Brown
indicating high resistance pyrometer with the exception that the
pointer is depressed at intervals of every 10 sec. upon contact-making
devices. No current passes through the pointer which simply depresses
the upper contact device tipped with platinum, which in turn comes
in contact with the lower contact device, platinum-tipped, and the
circuit is completed through these two contacts. The current is very
small, about 1/10 amp., as it is only necessary to operate the relay
which in turn operates the switch or valve. A small motor is used to
depress the pointer at regular intervals. The contact-making device
is adjustable throughout the scale range of the instrument, and an
index pointer indicates the point on the instrument at which the
temperature is being controlled. The space between the two contacts
on the high and low side, separated by insulating material, is
equivalent to 1 per cent of the scale range. A control of temperature
is therefore possible within 1 per cent of the total scale range.
Figure 131 shows this attached to a small furnace.

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