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Steel Making

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer


Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the Brown
indicating high resistance pyrometer with the exception that the
pointer is depressed at intervals of every 10 sec. upon contact-making
devices. No current passes through the pointer which simply depresses
the upper contact device tipped with platinum, which in turn comes
in contact with the lower contact device, platinum-tipped, and the
circuit is completed through these two contacts. The current is very
small, about 1/10 amp., as it is only necessary to operate the relay
which in turn operates the switch or valve. A small motor is used to
depress the pointer at regular intervals. The contact-making device
is adjustable throughout the scale range of the instrument, and an
index pointer indicates the point on the instrument at which the
temperature is being controlled. The space between the two contacts
on the high and low side, separated by insulating material, is
equivalent to 1 per cent of the scale range. A control of temperature
is therefore possible within 1 per cent of the total scale range.
Figure 131 shows this attached to a small furnace.

Next: Pyrometers For Molten Metal

Previous: Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer

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