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Steel Making

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...



Alloying Elements






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

Commercial steels of even the simplest types
are therefore primarily alloys of iron and carbon. Impurities and
their remedies are always present: sulphur, phosphorus, silicon
and manganese--to say nothing of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon oxide
gases, about which we know very little. It has been found that other
metals, if added to well-made steel, produce definite improvements
in certain directions, and these alloy steels have found much
use in the last ten years. Alloy steels, in addition to the
above-mentioned elements, may commonly contain one or more of the
following, in varying amounts: Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr), Vanadium
(Va), Tungsten (W), Molybdenum (Mo). These steels will be discussed
at more length in Chapters III and IV.





Next: Properties Of Steel

Previous: Manganese



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