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Steel Making

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer


In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to maintain
an operator at a central pyrometer, and by colored electric lights
at the furnaces, signal whether the temperatures are correct or
not. It is common practice to locate three lights above each
furnace-red, white and green. The red light burns when the temperature
is too low, the white light when the temperature is within certain
limits--for example, 20 deg.F. of the correct temperature--and the
green light when the temperature is too high.

Instruments to operate the lights automatically have been devised and
one made by Brown is shown in Fig. 130. The same form of instrument is
used for this purpose to automatically control furnace temperatures,
and the pointer is depressed at intervals of every 10 sec. on contacts
corresponding to the red, white and green lights.

Next: An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer

Previous: Compensating Leads

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