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Steel Making

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Compensating Leads


By the use of compensating leads, formed of
the same material as the thermo-couple, the cold junction can be
removed from the head of the thermo-couple to a point 10, 20 or 50
ft. distant from the furnace, where the temperature is reasonably
constant. Where greater accuracy is desired, a common method is
to drive a 2-in. pipe, with a pointed closed end, some 10 to 20
ft. into the ground, as shown in Fig. 128. The compensating leads
are joined to the copper leads, and the junction forced down to
the bottom of the pipe. The cold junction is now in the ground,
beneath the building, at a depth at which the temperature is very
constant, about 70 deg.F., throughout the year. This method will usually
control the cold-junction temperature within 5 deg.F.

Where the greatest accuracy is desired a compensating box will
overcome cold-junction errors entirely. It consists of a case enclosing
a lamp and thermostat, which can be adjusted to maintain any desired
temperature, from 50 to 150 deg.F. The compensating leads enter the box
and copper leads run from the compensating box to the instrument,
so that the cold junction is within the box. Figure 129 shows a
Brown compensating box.

If it is desired to maintain the cold junction at 100 deg.: the thermostat
is set at this point, and the lamp, being wired to the 110- or
220-volt lighting circuit, will light and heat the box until 100 deg.
is reached, when the thermostat will open the circuit and the light
is extinguished. The box will now cool down to 98 deg., when the circuit
is again closed, the lamp lights, the box heats up, and the operation
is repeated.

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Previous: Correction By Zero Adjustment

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