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The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Compensating Leads


By the use of compensating leads, formed of
the same material as the thermo-couple, the cold junction can be
removed from the head of the thermo-couple to a point 10, 20 or 50
ft. distant from the furnace, where the temperature is reasonably
constant. Where greater accuracy is desired, a common method is
to drive a 2-in. pipe, with a pointed closed end, some 10 to 20
ft. into the ground, as shown in Fig. 128. The compensating leads
are joined to the copper leads, and the junction forced down to
the bottom of the pipe. The cold junction is now in the ground,
beneath the building, at a depth at which the temperature is very
constant, about 70 deg.F., throughout the year. This method will usually
control the cold-junction temperature within 5 deg.F.

Where the greatest accuracy is desired a compensating box will
overcome cold-junction errors entirely. It consists of a case enclosing
a lamp and thermostat, which can be adjusted to maintain any desired
temperature, from 50 to 150 deg.F. The compensating leads enter the box
and copper leads run from the compensating box to the instrument,
so that the cold junction is within the box. Figure 129 shows a
Brown compensating box.

If it is desired to maintain the cold junction at 100 deg.: the thermostat
is set at this point, and the lamp, being wired to the 110- or
220-volt lighting circuit, will light and heat the box until 100 deg.
is reached, when the thermostat will open the circuit and the light
is extinguished. The box will now cool down to 98 deg., when the circuit
is again closed, the lamp lights, the box heats up, and the operation
is repeated.

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Previous: Correction By Zero Adjustment

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