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Steel Making

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Compensating Leads


By the use of compensating leads, formed of
the same material as the thermo-couple, the cold junction can be
removed from the head of the thermo-couple to a point 10, 20 or 50
ft. distant from the furnace, where the temperature is reasonably
constant. Where greater accuracy is desired, a common method is
to drive a 2-in. pipe, with a pointed closed end, some 10 to 20
ft. into the ground, as shown in Fig. 128. The compensating leads
are joined to the copper leads, and the junction forced down to
the bottom of the pipe. The cold junction is now in the ground,
beneath the building, at a depth at which the temperature is very
constant, about 70 deg.F., throughout the year. This method will usually
control the cold-junction temperature within 5 deg.F.

Where the greatest accuracy is desired a compensating box will
overcome cold-junction errors entirely. It consists of a case enclosing
a lamp and thermostat, which can be adjusted to maintain any desired
temperature, from 50 to 150 deg.F. The compensating leads enter the box
and copper leads run from the compensating box to the instrument,
so that the cold junction is within the box. Figure 129 shows a
Brown compensating box.

If it is desired to maintain the cold junction at 100 deg.: the thermostat
is set at this point, and the lamp, being wired to the 110- or
220-volt lighting circuit, will light and heat the box until 100 deg.
is reached, when the thermostat will open the circuit and the light
is extinguished. The box will now cool down to 98 deg., when the circuit
is again closed, the lamp lights, the box heats up, and the operation
is repeated.

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Previous: Correction By Zero Adjustment

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