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Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Compensating Leads


By the use of compensating leads, formed of
the same material as the thermo-couple, the cold junction can be
removed from the head of the thermo-couple to a point 10, 20 or 50
ft. distant from the furnace, where the temperature is reasonably
constant. Where greater accuracy is desired, a common method is
to drive a 2-in. pipe, with a pointed closed end, some 10 to 20
ft. into the ground, as shown in Fig. 128. The compensating leads
are joined to the copper leads, and the junction forced down to
the bottom of the pipe. The cold junction is now in the ground,
beneath the building, at a depth at which the temperature is very
constant, about 70 deg.F., throughout the year. This method will usually
control the cold-junction temperature within 5 deg.F.

Where the greatest accuracy is desired a compensating box will
overcome cold-junction errors entirely. It consists of a case enclosing
a lamp and thermostat, which can be adjusted to maintain any desired
temperature, from 50 to 150 deg.F. The compensating leads enter the box
and copper leads run from the compensating box to the instrument,
so that the cold junction is within the box. Figure 129 shows a
Brown compensating box.

If it is desired to maintain the cold junction at 100 deg.: the thermostat
is set at this point, and the lamp, being wired to the 110- or
220-volt lighting circuit, will light and heat the box until 100 deg.
is reached, when the thermostat will open the circuit and the light
is extinguished. The box will now cool down to 98 deg., when the circuit
is again closed, the lamp lights, the box heats up, and the operation
is repeated.

Next: Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer

Previous: Correction By Zero Adjustment

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