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Steel Making

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Compensating Leads


By the use of compensating leads, formed of
the same material as the thermo-couple, the cold junction can be
removed from the head of the thermo-couple to a point 10, 20 or 50
ft. distant from the furnace, where the temperature is reasonably
constant. Where greater accuracy is desired, a common method is
to drive a 2-in. pipe, with a pointed closed end, some 10 to 20
ft. into the ground, as shown in Fig. 128. The compensating leads
are joined to the copper leads, and the junction forced down to
the bottom of the pipe. The cold junction is now in the ground,
beneath the building, at a depth at which the temperature is very
constant, about 70 deg.F., throughout the year. This method will usually
control the cold-junction temperature within 5 deg.F.

Where the greatest accuracy is desired a compensating box will
overcome cold-junction errors entirely. It consists of a case enclosing
a lamp and thermostat, which can be adjusted to maintain any desired
temperature, from 50 to 150 deg.F. The compensating leads enter the box
and copper leads run from the compensating box to the instrument,
so that the cold junction is within the box. Figure 129 shows a
Brown compensating box.

If it is desired to maintain the cold junction at 100 deg.: the thermostat
is set at this point, and the lamp, being wired to the 110- or
220-volt lighting circuit, will light and heat the box until 100 deg.
is reached, when the thermostat will open the circuit and the light
is extinguished. The box will now cool down to 98 deg., when the circuit
is again closed, the lamp lights, the box heats up, and the operation
is repeated.

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