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Steel Making

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Compensating Leads


By the use of compensating leads, formed of
the same material as the thermo-couple, the cold junction can be
removed from the head of the thermo-couple to a point 10, 20 or 50
ft. distant from the furnace, where the temperature is reasonably
constant. Where greater accuracy is desired, a common method is
to drive a 2-in. pipe, with a pointed closed end, some 10 to 20
ft. into the ground, as shown in Fig. 128. The compensating leads
are joined to the copper leads, and the junction forced down to
the bottom of the pipe. The cold junction is now in the ground,
beneath the building, at a depth at which the temperature is very
constant, about 70 deg.F., throughout the year. This method will usually
control the cold-junction temperature within 5 deg.F.

Where the greatest accuracy is desired a compensating box will
overcome cold-junction errors entirely. It consists of a case enclosing
a lamp and thermostat, which can be adjusted to maintain any desired
temperature, from 50 to 150 deg.F. The compensating leads enter the box
and copper leads run from the compensating box to the instrument,
so that the cold junction is within the box. Figure 129 shows a
Brown compensating box.

If it is desired to maintain the cold junction at 100 deg.: the thermostat
is set at this point, and the lamp, being wired to the 110- or
220-volt lighting circuit, will light and heat the box until 100 deg.
is reached, when the thermostat will open the circuit and the light
is extinguished. The box will now cool down to 98 deg., when the circuit
is again closed, the lamp lights, the box heats up, and the operation
is repeated.

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Previous: Correction By Zero Adjustment

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