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Steel Making

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Compensating Leads


By the use of compensating leads, formed of
the same material as the thermo-couple, the cold junction can be
removed from the head of the thermo-couple to a point 10, 20 or 50
ft. distant from the furnace, where the temperature is reasonably
constant. Where greater accuracy is desired, a common method is
to drive a 2-in. pipe, with a pointed closed end, some 10 to 20
ft. into the ground, as shown in Fig. 128. The compensating leads
are joined to the copper leads, and the junction forced down to
the bottom of the pipe. The cold junction is now in the ground,
beneath the building, at a depth at which the temperature is very
constant, about 70 deg.F., throughout the year. This method will usually
control the cold-junction temperature within 5 deg.F.

Where the greatest accuracy is desired a compensating box will
overcome cold-junction errors entirely. It consists of a case enclosing
a lamp and thermostat, which can be adjusted to maintain any desired
temperature, from 50 to 150 deg.F. The compensating leads enter the box
and copper leads run from the compensating box to the instrument,
so that the cold junction is within the box. Figure 129 shows a
Brown compensating box.

If it is desired to maintain the cold junction at 100 deg.: the thermostat
is set at this point, and the lamp, being wired to the 110- or
220-volt lighting circuit, will light and heat the box until 100 deg.
is reached, when the thermostat will open the circuit and the light
is extinguished. The box will now cool down to 98 deg., when the circuit
is again closed, the lamp lights, the box heats up, and the operation
is repeated.

Next: Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer

Previous: Correction By Zero Adjustment

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