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Steel Making

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Compensating Leads


By the use of compensating leads, formed of
the same material as the thermo-couple, the cold junction can be
removed from the head of the thermo-couple to a point 10, 20 or 50
ft. distant from the furnace, where the temperature is reasonably
constant. Where greater accuracy is desired, a common method is
to drive a 2-in. pipe, with a pointed closed end, some 10 to 20
ft. into the ground, as shown in Fig. 128. The compensating leads
are joined to the copper leads, and the junction forced down to
the bottom of the pipe. The cold junction is now in the ground,
beneath the building, at a depth at which the temperature is very
constant, about 70 deg.F., throughout the year. This method will usually
control the cold-junction temperature within 5 deg.F.

Where the greatest accuracy is desired a compensating box will
overcome cold-junction errors entirely. It consists of a case enclosing
a lamp and thermostat, which can be adjusted to maintain any desired
temperature, from 50 to 150 deg.F. The compensating leads enter the box
and copper leads run from the compensating box to the instrument,
so that the cold junction is within the box. Figure 129 shows a
Brown compensating box.

If it is desired to maintain the cold junction at 100 deg.: the thermostat
is set at this point, and the lamp, being wired to the 110- or
220-volt lighting circuit, will light and heat the box until 100 deg.
is reached, when the thermostat will open the circuit and the light
is extinguished. The box will now cool down to 98 deg., when the circuit
is again closed, the lamp lights, the box heats up, and the operation
is repeated.

Next: Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer

Previous: Correction By Zero Adjustment

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