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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...



Compensating Leads






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

By the use of compensating leads, formed of
the same material as the thermo-couple, the cold junction can be
removed from the head of the thermo-couple to a point 10, 20 or 50
ft. distant from the furnace, where the temperature is reasonably
constant. Where greater accuracy is desired, a common method is
to drive a 2-in. pipe, with a pointed closed end, some 10 to 20
ft. into the ground, as shown in Fig. 128. The compensating leads
are joined to the copper leads, and the junction forced down to
the bottom of the pipe. The cold junction is now in the ground,
beneath the building, at a depth at which the temperature is very
constant, about 70 deg.F., throughout the year. This method will usually
control the cold-junction temperature within 5 deg.F.

Where the greatest accuracy is desired a compensating box will
overcome cold-junction errors entirely. It consists of a case enclosing
a lamp and thermostat, which can be adjusted to maintain any desired
temperature, from 50 to 150 deg.F. The compensating leads enter the box
and copper leads run from the compensating box to the instrument,
so that the cold junction is within the box. Figure 129 shows a
Brown compensating box.



If it is desired to maintain the cold junction at 100 deg.: the thermostat
is set at this point, and the lamp, being wired to the 110- or
220-volt lighting circuit, will light and heat the box until 100 deg.
is reached, when the thermostat will open the circuit and the light
is extinguished. The box will now cool down to 98 deg., when the circuit
is again closed, the lamp lights, the box heats up, and the operation
is repeated.





Next: Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer

Previous: Correction By Zero Adjustment



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