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Steel Making

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel


For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using ground
mica, charcoal, lime, fine dry ashes or lake sand as a packing
in the annealing boxes. Mixtures of one part charcoal, one part
lime and three parts of sand are also suggested, or two parts of
ashes may be substituted for the one part of lime.

To bring about the softest structure or machine ability of high-speed
steel, it should be packed in charcoal in boxes or pipes, carefully
sealed at all points, so that no gases will escape or air be admitted.
It should be heated slowly to not less than 1,450 deg.F. and the steel
must not be removed from its packing until it is cool. Slow heating
means that the high heat must have penetrated to the very core of
the steel.

When the steel is heated clear through it has been in the furnace
long enough. If the steel can remain in the furnace and cool down
with it, there will be no danger of air blasts or sudden or uneven
cooling. If not, remove the box and cover quickly with dry ashes,
sand or lime until it becomes cold.

Too high a heat or maintaining the heat for too long a period,
produces a harsh, coarse grain and greatly increases the liability
to crack in hardening. It also reduces the strength and toughness
of the steel.

Steel which is to be used for making tools with teeth, such as
taps, reamers and milling cutters, should not be annealed too much.
When the steel is too soft it is more apt to tear in cutting and
makes it more difficult to cut a smooth thread or other surface.
Moderate annealing is found best for tools of this kind.

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