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This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel


For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using ground
mica, charcoal, lime, fine dry ashes or lake sand as a packing
in the annealing boxes. Mixtures of one part charcoal, one part
lime and three parts of sand are also suggested, or two parts of
ashes may be substituted for the one part of lime.

To bring about the softest structure or machine ability of high-speed
steel, it should be packed in charcoal in boxes or pipes, carefully
sealed at all points, so that no gases will escape or air be admitted.
It should be heated slowly to not less than 1,450 deg.F. and the steel
must not be removed from its packing until it is cool. Slow heating
means that the high heat must have penetrated to the very core of
the steel.

When the steel is heated clear through it has been in the furnace
long enough. If the steel can remain in the furnace and cool down
with it, there will be no danger of air blasts or sudden or uneven
cooling. If not, remove the box and cover quickly with dry ashes,
sand or lime until it becomes cold.

Too high a heat or maintaining the heat for too long a period,
produces a harsh, coarse grain and greatly increases the liability
to crack in hardening. It also reduces the strength and toughness
of the steel.

Steel which is to be used for making tools with teeth, such as
taps, reamers and milling cutters, should not be annealed too much.
When the steel is too soft it is more apt to tear in cutting and
makes it more difficult to cut a smooth thread or other surface.
Moderate annealing is found best for tools of this kind.

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