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Steel Making

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel


For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using ground
mica, charcoal, lime, fine dry ashes or lake sand as a packing
in the annealing boxes. Mixtures of one part charcoal, one part
lime and three parts of sand are also suggested, or two parts of
ashes may be substituted for the one part of lime.

To bring about the softest structure or machine ability of high-speed
steel, it should be packed in charcoal in boxes or pipes, carefully
sealed at all points, so that no gases will escape or air be admitted.
It should be heated slowly to not less than 1,450 deg.F. and the steel
must not be removed from its packing until it is cool. Slow heating
means that the high heat must have penetrated to the very core of
the steel.

When the steel is heated clear through it has been in the furnace
long enough. If the steel can remain in the furnace and cool down
with it, there will be no danger of air blasts or sudden or uneven
cooling. If not, remove the box and cover quickly with dry ashes,
sand or lime until it becomes cold.

Too high a heat or maintaining the heat for too long a period,
produces a harsh, coarse grain and greatly increases the liability
to crack in hardening. It also reduces the strength and toughness
of the steel.

Steel which is to be used for making tools with teeth, such as
taps, reamers and milling cutters, should not be annealed too much.
When the steel is too soft it is more apt to tear in cutting and
makes it more difficult to cut a smooth thread or other surface.
Moderate annealing is found best for tools of this kind.

Next: Tool Or Crucible Steel

Previous: Annealing

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