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Steel Making

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel


For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using ground
mica, charcoal, lime, fine dry ashes or lake sand as a packing
in the annealing boxes. Mixtures of one part charcoal, one part
lime and three parts of sand are also suggested, or two parts of
ashes may be substituted for the one part of lime.

To bring about the softest structure or machine ability of high-speed
steel, it should be packed in charcoal in boxes or pipes, carefully
sealed at all points, so that no gases will escape or air be admitted.
It should be heated slowly to not less than 1,450 deg.F. and the steel
must not be removed from its packing until it is cool. Slow heating
means that the high heat must have penetrated to the very core of
the steel.

When the steel is heated clear through it has been in the furnace
long enough. If the steel can remain in the furnace and cool down
with it, there will be no danger of air blasts or sudden or uneven
cooling. If not, remove the box and cover quickly with dry ashes,
sand or lime until it becomes cold.

Too high a heat or maintaining the heat for too long a period,
produces a harsh, coarse grain and greatly increases the liability
to crack in hardening. It also reduces the strength and toughness
of the steel.

Steel which is to be used for making tools with teeth, such as
taps, reamers and milling cutters, should not be annealed too much.
When the steel is too soft it is more apt to tear in cutting and
makes it more difficult to cut a smooth thread or other surface.
Moderate annealing is found best for tools of this kind.

Next: Tool Or Crucible Steel

Previous: Annealing

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