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Steel Making

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel


For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using ground
mica, charcoal, lime, fine dry ashes or lake sand as a packing
in the annealing boxes. Mixtures of one part charcoal, one part
lime and three parts of sand are also suggested, or two parts of
ashes may be substituted for the one part of lime.

To bring about the softest structure or machine ability of high-speed
steel, it should be packed in charcoal in boxes or pipes, carefully
sealed at all points, so that no gases will escape or air be admitted.
It should be heated slowly to not less than 1,450 deg.F. and the steel
must not be removed from its packing until it is cool. Slow heating
means that the high heat must have penetrated to the very core of
the steel.

When the steel is heated clear through it has been in the furnace
long enough. If the steel can remain in the furnace and cool down
with it, there will be no danger of air blasts or sudden or uneven
cooling. If not, remove the box and cover quickly with dry ashes,
sand or lime until it becomes cold.

Too high a heat or maintaining the heat for too long a period,
produces a harsh, coarse grain and greatly increases the liability
to crack in hardening. It also reduces the strength and toughness
of the steel.

Steel which is to be used for making tools with teeth, such as
taps, reamers and milling cutters, should not be annealed too much.
When the steel is too soft it is more apt to tear in cutting and
makes it more difficult to cut a smooth thread or other surface.
Moderate annealing is found best for tools of this kind.

Next: Tool Or Crucible Steel

Previous: Annealing

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