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Steel Making

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel


For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using ground
mica, charcoal, lime, fine dry ashes or lake sand as a packing
in the annealing boxes. Mixtures of one part charcoal, one part
lime and three parts of sand are also suggested, or two parts of
ashes may be substituted for the one part of lime.

To bring about the softest structure or machine ability of high-speed
steel, it should be packed in charcoal in boxes or pipes, carefully
sealed at all points, so that no gases will escape or air be admitted.
It should be heated slowly to not less than 1,450 deg.F. and the steel
must not be removed from its packing until it is cool. Slow heating
means that the high heat must have penetrated to the very core of
the steel.

When the steel is heated clear through it has been in the furnace
long enough. If the steel can remain in the furnace and cool down
with it, there will be no danger of air blasts or sudden or uneven
cooling. If not, remove the box and cover quickly with dry ashes,
sand or lime until it becomes cold.

Too high a heat or maintaining the heat for too long a period,
produces a harsh, coarse grain and greatly increases the liability
to crack in hardening. It also reduces the strength and toughness
of the steel.

Steel which is to be used for making tools with teeth, such as
taps, reamers and milling cutters, should not be annealed too much.
When the steel is too soft it is more apt to tear in cutting and
makes it more difficult to cut a smooth thread or other surface.
Moderate annealing is found best for tools of this kind.

Next: Tool Or Crucible Steel

Previous: Annealing

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