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Steel Making

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel


For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using ground
mica, charcoal, lime, fine dry ashes or lake sand as a packing
in the annealing boxes. Mixtures of one part charcoal, one part
lime and three parts of sand are also suggested, or two parts of
ashes may be substituted for the one part of lime.

To bring about the softest structure or machine ability of high-speed
steel, it should be packed in charcoal in boxes or pipes, carefully
sealed at all points, so that no gases will escape or air be admitted.
It should be heated slowly to not less than 1,450 deg.F. and the steel
must not be removed from its packing until it is cool. Slow heating
means that the high heat must have penetrated to the very core of
the steel.

When the steel is heated clear through it has been in the furnace
long enough. If the steel can remain in the furnace and cool down
with it, there will be no danger of air blasts or sudden or uneven
cooling. If not, remove the box and cover quickly with dry ashes,
sand or lime until it becomes cold.

Too high a heat or maintaining the heat for too long a period,
produces a harsh, coarse grain and greatly increases the liability
to crack in hardening. It also reduces the strength and toughness
of the steel.

Steel which is to be used for making tools with teeth, such as
taps, reamers and milling cutters, should not be annealed too much.
When the steel is too soft it is more apt to tear in cutting and
makes it more difficult to cut a smooth thread or other surface.
Moderate annealing is found best for tools of this kind.

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