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Steel Making

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel


For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using ground
mica, charcoal, lime, fine dry ashes or lake sand as a packing
in the annealing boxes. Mixtures of one part charcoal, one part
lime and three parts of sand are also suggested, or two parts of
ashes may be substituted for the one part of lime.

To bring about the softest structure or machine ability of high-speed
steel, it should be packed in charcoal in boxes or pipes, carefully
sealed at all points, so that no gases will escape or air be admitted.
It should be heated slowly to not less than 1,450 deg.F. and the steel
must not be removed from its packing until it is cool. Slow heating
means that the high heat must have penetrated to the very core of
the steel.

When the steel is heated clear through it has been in the furnace
long enough. If the steel can remain in the furnace and cool down
with it, there will be no danger of air blasts or sudden or uneven
cooling. If not, remove the box and cover quickly with dry ashes,
sand or lime until it becomes cold.

Too high a heat or maintaining the heat for too long a period,
produces a harsh, coarse grain and greatly increases the liability
to crack in hardening. It also reduces the strength and toughness
of the steel.

Steel which is to be used for making tools with teeth, such as
taps, reamers and milling cutters, should not be annealed too much.
When the steel is too soft it is more apt to tear in cutting and
makes it more difficult to cut a smooth thread or other surface.
Moderate annealing is found best for tools of this kind.

Next: Tool Or Crucible Steel

Previous: Annealing

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