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Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry


The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineering achievement
in which the science of metallurgy played an important part. The
reasons for the use of certain materials and certain treatments
for each part are given with recommendations for their application
to the problems of automotive industry.

The most important items to be taken into consideration in the
selection of material for parts of this type are uniformity and
machineability. It has been demonstrated many times that the ordinary
grades of bessemer screw stock are unsatisfactory for aviation
purposes, due to the presence of excessive amounts of unevenly
distributed phosphorus and sulphide segregations. For this reason,
material finished by the basic open hearth process was selected,
in accordance with the following specifications: Carbon, 0.150 to
0.250 per cent; manganese, 0.500 to 0.800 per cent; phosphorus,
0.045 maximum per cent; sulphur, 0.060 to 0.090 per cent.

This material in the cold-drawn condition will show: Elastic limit,
50,000 lb. per square inch, elongation in 2 in., 10 per cent, reduction
of area, 35 per cent.

This material gave as uniform physical properties as S. A. E. No.
1020 steel and at the same time was sufficiently free cutting to
produce a smooth thread and enable the screw-machine manufacturers
to produce, to the same thread limits, approximately 75 per cent
as many parts as from bessemer screw stock.

There are but seven carbon-steel carbonized parts on the Liberty
engine. The most important are the camshaft, the camshaft rocker
lever roller and the tappet. The material used for parts of this
type was S. A. E. No. 1,020 steel, which is of the following chemical
analysis: Carbon 0.150 to 0.250 per cent; manganese, 0.300 to 0.600
per cent; phosphorus, 0.045 maximum per cent; sulphur, 0.050 maximum
per cent.

The heat treatment consisted in carbonizing at a temperature of
from 1,650 to 1,700 deg.F. for a sufficient length of time to secure
the proper depth of case, cool slowly or quench; then reheat to a
temperature of 1,380 to 1,430 deg.F. to refine the grain of the case,
and quench in water. The only thing that should limit the rate of
cooling from the carbonizing heat is distortion. Camshaft rocker
lever rollers and tappets, as well as gear pins, were quenched
directly from the carbonizing heat in water and then case-refined
and rehardened by quenching in water from a temperature of from
1,380 to 1,430 deg.F.

The advantage of direct quenching from the carbonizing heat is
doubtless one of economy, and in many cases will save the cost
of a reheating. Specifications for case hardening, issued by the
Society of Automotive Engineers, have lately been revised; whereas
they formerly called for a slow cooling, they now permit a quenching
from the pot. Doubtless this is a step in advance. Warpage caused
by quenching can be reduced to a minimum by thoroughly annealing
the stock before any machine work is done on it.

Another advantage obtained from rapid cooling from the carbonizing
heat is the retaining of the majority of the excess cementite in
solution which produces a less brittle case and by so doing reduces
the liability of grinding checks and chipping of the case in actual

In the case of the camshaft, it is not possible to quench directly
from the carbonizing heat because of distortion and therefore excessive
breakage during straightening operations. All Liberty camshafts
were cooled slowly from carbonizing heat and hardened by a single
reheating to a temperature of from 1,380 to 1,430 deg.F. and quenching
in water.

Considerable trouble has always been experienced in obtaining uniform
hardness on finished camshafts. This is caused by insufficient
water circulation in the quenching tank, which allows the formation
of steam pockets to take place, or by decarbonization of the case
during heating by the use of an overoxidizing flame. Another cause,
which is very often overlooked, is due to the case being ground off
one side of cam more than the other and is caused by the roughing
master cam being slightly different from the finishing master cam.
Great care should be taken to see that this condition does not occur,
especially when the depth of case is between 1/32 and 3/64 in.

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