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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...



Double Annealing






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to cool
in air until it loses its red heat and becomes black and then
immediately quenching it in water. This plan works well for very
low-carbon steel; but for high-carbon steel what is known as the
double annealing treatment must be given, provided results are
wanted quickly. The process consists in heating the steel quickly to
200 deg. or more above the upper critical, cooling in air down through
the recalescence point, then reheating it to just above the critical
point and again cooling slowly through the recalescence, then quenching
in oil. This process retains in the steel a fine-grained structure
combined with softness.





Next: Quenching Tool Steel

Previous: Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses



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