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Steel Making

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...



Double Annealing






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to cool
in air until it loses its red heat and becomes black and then
immediately quenching it in water. This plan works well for very
low-carbon steel; but for high-carbon steel what is known as the
double annealing treatment must be given, provided results are
wanted quickly. The process consists in heating the steel quickly to
200 deg. or more above the upper critical, cooling in air down through
the recalescence point, then reheating it to just above the critical
point and again cooling slowly through the recalescence, then quenching
in oil. This process retains in the steel a fine-grained structure
combined with softness.





Next: Quenching Tool Steel

Previous: Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses



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