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Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...



Double Annealing






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to cool
in air until it loses its red heat and becomes black and then
immediately quenching it in water. This plan works well for very
low-carbon steel; but for high-carbon steel what is known as the
double annealing treatment must be given, provided results are
wanted quickly. The process consists in heating the steel quickly to
200 deg. or more above the upper critical, cooling in air down through
the recalescence point, then reheating it to just above the critical
point and again cooling slowly through the recalescence, then quenching
in oil. This process retains in the steel a fine-grained structure
combined with softness.





Next: Quenching Tool Steel

Previous: Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses



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