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Steel Making

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...



Double Annealing






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to cool
in air until it loses its red heat and becomes black and then
immediately quenching it in water. This plan works well for very
low-carbon steel; but for high-carbon steel what is known as the
double annealing treatment must be given, provided results are
wanted quickly. The process consists in heating the steel quickly to
200 deg. or more above the upper critical, cooling in air down through
the recalescence point, then reheating it to just above the critical
point and again cooling slowly through the recalescence, then quenching
in oil. This process retains in the steel a fine-grained structure
combined with softness.





Next: Quenching Tool Steel

Previous: Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses



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