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Steel Making

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...



Double Annealing






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to cool
in air until it loses its red heat and becomes black and then
immediately quenching it in water. This plan works well for very
low-carbon steel; but for high-carbon steel what is known as the
double annealing treatment must be given, provided results are
wanted quickly. The process consists in heating the steel quickly to
200 deg. or more above the upper critical, cooling in air down through
the recalescence point, then reheating it to just above the critical
point and again cooling slowly through the recalescence, then quenching
in oil. This process retains in the steel a fine-grained structure
combined with softness.





Next: Quenching Tool Steel

Previous: Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses



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