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Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...



Double Annealing






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to cool
in air until it loses its red heat and becomes black and then
immediately quenching it in water. This plan works well for very
low-carbon steel; but for high-carbon steel what is known as the
double annealing treatment must be given, provided results are
wanted quickly. The process consists in heating the steel quickly to
200 deg. or more above the upper critical, cooling in air down through
the recalescence point, then reheating it to just above the critical
point and again cooling slowly through the recalescence, then quenching
in oil. This process retains in the steel a fine-grained structure
combined with softness.





Next: Quenching Tool Steel

Previous: Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses



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