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Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...



Double Annealing






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to cool
in air until it loses its red heat and becomes black and then
immediately quenching it in water. This plan works well for very
low-carbon steel; but for high-carbon steel what is known as the
double annealing treatment must be given, provided results are
wanted quickly. The process consists in heating the steel quickly to
200 deg. or more above the upper critical, cooling in air down through
the recalescence point, then reheating it to just above the critical
point and again cooling slowly through the recalescence, then quenching
in oil. This process retains in the steel a fine-grained structure
combined with softness.





Next: Quenching Tool Steel

Previous: Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses



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