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Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...



Double Annealing






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to cool
in air until it loses its red heat and becomes black and then
immediately quenching it in water. This plan works well for very
low-carbon steel; but for high-carbon steel what is known as the
double annealing treatment must be given, provided results are
wanted quickly. The process consists in heating the steel quickly to
200 deg. or more above the upper critical, cooling in air down through
the recalescence point, then reheating it to just above the critical
point and again cooling slowly through the recalescence, then quenching
in oil. This process retains in the steel a fine-grained structure
combined with softness.





Next: Quenching Tool Steel

Previous: Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses



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