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Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...



Hardening High-speed Steels






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels. The
most ordinary tools used are for lathes and planers. The forging
should be done at carbon-steel heat. Rough-grind while still hot
and preheat to about carbon-steel hardening heat, then heat quickly
in high-speed furnace to white heat, and quench in oil. If a very
hard substance is to be cut, the point of tool may be quenched in
kerosene or water and when nearly black, finish cooling in oil.
Tempering must be done to suit the material to be cut. For cutting
cast iron, brass castings, or hard steel, tempering should be done
merely to take strains out of steel.

On ordinary machinery steel or nickel steel the temper can be drawn
to a dark blue or up to 900 deg.F. If the tool is of a special form
or character, the risk of melting or scaling the point cannot be
taken. In these cases the tool should be packed, but if there is
no packing equipment, a tool can be heated to as high heat as is
safe without risk to cutting edges, and cyanide or prussiate of
potash can be sprinkled over the face and then quenched in oil.

Some very adverse criticism may be heard on this point, but experience
has proved that such tools will stand up very nicely and be perfectly
free from scales or pipes. Where packing cannot be done, milling
cutters, and tools to be hardened all over, can be placed in muffled
furnace, brought to 2,220 deg. and quenched in oil. All such tools,
however, must be preheated slowly to 1,400 to 1,500 deg. then placed in
a high-speed furnace and brought up quickly. Do not soak high-speed
steel at high heats. Quench in oil.

We must bear in mind that the heating furnace is likely to expand
tools, therefore provision must be made to leave extra stock to
take care of such expansion. Tools with shanks such as counter
bores, taps, reamers, drills, etc., should be heated no further
than they are wanted hard, and quench in oil. If a forge is not
at hand and heating must be done, use a muffle furnace and cover
small shanks with a paste from fire clay or ground asbestos. Hollow
mills, spring threading dies, and large cutting tools with small
shanks should have the holes thoroughly packed or covered with
asbestos cement as far as they are wanted soft.





Next: Cutting-off Steel From Bar

Previous: Quality And Structure



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