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Steel Making

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...



Hardening High-speed Steels






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels. The
most ordinary tools used are for lathes and planers. The forging
should be done at carbon-steel heat. Rough-grind while still hot
and preheat to about carbon-steel hardening heat, then heat quickly
in high-speed furnace to white heat, and quench in oil. If a very
hard substance is to be cut, the point of tool may be quenched in
kerosene or water and when nearly black, finish cooling in oil.
Tempering must be done to suit the material to be cut. For cutting
cast iron, brass castings, or hard steel, tempering should be done
merely to take strains out of steel.

On ordinary machinery steel or nickel steel the temper can be drawn
to a dark blue or up to 900 deg.F. If the tool is of a special form
or character, the risk of melting or scaling the point cannot be
taken. In these cases the tool should be packed, but if there is
no packing equipment, a tool can be heated to as high heat as is
safe without risk to cutting edges, and cyanide or prussiate of
potash can be sprinkled over the face and then quenched in oil.

Some very adverse criticism may be heard on this point, but experience
has proved that such tools will stand up very nicely and be perfectly
free from scales or pipes. Where packing cannot be done, milling
cutters, and tools to be hardened all over, can be placed in muffled
furnace, brought to 2,220 deg. and quenched in oil. All such tools,
however, must be preheated slowly to 1,400 to 1,500 deg. then placed in
a high-speed furnace and brought up quickly. Do not soak high-speed
steel at high heats. Quench in oil.

We must bear in mind that the heating furnace is likely to expand
tools, therefore provision must be made to leave extra stock to
take care of such expansion. Tools with shanks such as counter
bores, taps, reamers, drills, etc., should be heated no further
than they are wanted hard, and quench in oil. If a forge is not
at hand and heating must be done, use a muffle furnace and cover
small shanks with a paste from fire clay or ground asbestos. Hollow
mills, spring threading dies, and large cutting tools with small
shanks should have the holes thoroughly packed or covered with
asbestos cement as far as they are wanted soft.





Next: Cutting-off Steel From Bar

Previous: Quality And Structure



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