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Steel Making

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...



Hardening High-speed Steels






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels. The
most ordinary tools used are for lathes and planers. The forging
should be done at carbon-steel heat. Rough-grind while still hot
and preheat to about carbon-steel hardening heat, then heat quickly
in high-speed furnace to white heat, and quench in oil. If a very
hard substance is to be cut, the point of tool may be quenched in
kerosene or water and when nearly black, finish cooling in oil.
Tempering must be done to suit the material to be cut. For cutting
cast iron, brass castings, or hard steel, tempering should be done
merely to take strains out of steel.

On ordinary machinery steel or nickel steel the temper can be drawn
to a dark blue or up to 900 deg.F. If the tool is of a special form
or character, the risk of melting or scaling the point cannot be
taken. In these cases the tool should be packed, but if there is
no packing equipment, a tool can be heated to as high heat as is
safe without risk to cutting edges, and cyanide or prussiate of
potash can be sprinkled over the face and then quenched in oil.

Some very adverse criticism may be heard on this point, but experience
has proved that such tools will stand up very nicely and be perfectly
free from scales or pipes. Where packing cannot be done, milling
cutters, and tools to be hardened all over, can be placed in muffled
furnace, brought to 2,220 deg. and quenched in oil. All such tools,
however, must be preheated slowly to 1,400 to 1,500 deg. then placed in
a high-speed furnace and brought up quickly. Do not soak high-speed
steel at high heats. Quench in oil.

We must bear in mind that the heating furnace is likely to expand
tools, therefore provision must be made to leave extra stock to
take care of such expansion. Tools with shanks such as counter
bores, taps, reamers, drills, etc., should be heated no further
than they are wanted hard, and quench in oil. If a forge is not
at hand and heating must be done, use a muffle furnace and cover
small shanks with a paste from fire clay or ground asbestos. Hollow
mills, spring threading dies, and large cutting tools with small
shanks should have the holes thoroughly packed or covered with
asbestos cement as far as they are wanted soft.





Next: Cutting-off Steel From Bar

Previous: Quality And Structure



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