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Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...



Hardening High-speed Steels






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels. The
most ordinary tools used are for lathes and planers. The forging
should be done at carbon-steel heat. Rough-grind while still hot
and preheat to about carbon-steel hardening heat, then heat quickly
in high-speed furnace to white heat, and quench in oil. If a very
hard substance is to be cut, the point of tool may be quenched in
kerosene or water and when nearly black, finish cooling in oil.
Tempering must be done to suit the material to be cut. For cutting
cast iron, brass castings, or hard steel, tempering should be done
merely to take strains out of steel.

On ordinary machinery steel or nickel steel the temper can be drawn
to a dark blue or up to 900 deg.F. If the tool is of a special form
or character, the risk of melting or scaling the point cannot be
taken. In these cases the tool should be packed, but if there is
no packing equipment, a tool can be heated to as high heat as is
safe without risk to cutting edges, and cyanide or prussiate of
potash can be sprinkled over the face and then quenched in oil.

Some very adverse criticism may be heard on this point, but experience
has proved that such tools will stand up very nicely and be perfectly
free from scales or pipes. Where packing cannot be done, milling
cutters, and tools to be hardened all over, can be placed in muffled
furnace, brought to 2,220 deg. and quenched in oil. All such tools,
however, must be preheated slowly to 1,400 to 1,500 deg. then placed in
a high-speed furnace and brought up quickly. Do not soak high-speed
steel at high heats. Quench in oil.

We must bear in mind that the heating furnace is likely to expand
tools, therefore provision must be made to leave extra stock to
take care of such expansion. Tools with shanks such as counter
bores, taps, reamers, drills, etc., should be heated no further
than they are wanted hard, and quench in oil. If a forge is not
at hand and heating must be done, use a muffle furnace and cover
small shanks with a paste from fire clay or ground asbestos. Hollow
mills, spring threading dies, and large cutting tools with small
shanks should have the holes thoroughly packed or covered with
asbestos cement as far as they are wanted soft.





Next: Cutting-off Steel From Bar

Previous: Quality And Structure



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