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Steel Making

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Hardening High-speed Steels


We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels. The
most ordinary tools used are for lathes and planers. The forging
should be done at carbon-steel heat. Rough-grind while still hot
and preheat to about carbon-steel hardening heat, then heat quickly
in high-speed furnace to white heat, and quench in oil. If a very
hard substance is to be cut, the point of tool may be quenched in
kerosene or water and when nearly black, finish cooling in oil.
Tempering must be done to suit the material to be cut. For cutting
cast iron, brass castings, or hard steel, tempering should be done
merely to take strains out of steel.

On ordinary machinery steel or nickel steel the temper can be drawn
to a dark blue or up to 900 deg.F. If the tool is of a special form
or character, the risk of melting or scaling the point cannot be
taken. In these cases the tool should be packed, but if there is
no packing equipment, a tool can be heated to as high heat as is
safe without risk to cutting edges, and cyanide or prussiate of
potash can be sprinkled over the face and then quenched in oil.

Some very adverse criticism may be heard on this point, but experience
has proved that such tools will stand up very nicely and be perfectly
free from scales or pipes. Where packing cannot be done, milling
cutters, and tools to be hardened all over, can be placed in muffled
furnace, brought to 2,220 deg. and quenched in oil. All such tools,
however, must be preheated slowly to 1,400 to 1,500 deg. then placed in
a high-speed furnace and brought up quickly. Do not soak high-speed
steel at high heats. Quench in oil.

We must bear in mind that the heating furnace is likely to expand
tools, therefore provision must be made to leave extra stock to
take care of such expansion. Tools with shanks such as counter
bores, taps, reamers, drills, etc., should be heated no further
than they are wanted hard, and quench in oil. If a forge is not
at hand and heating must be done, use a muffle furnace and cover
small shanks with a paste from fire clay or ground asbestos. Hollow
mills, spring threading dies, and large cutting tools with small
shanks should have the holes thoroughly packed or covered with
asbestos cement as far as they are wanted soft.

Next: Cutting-off Steel From Bar

Previous: Quality And Structure

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