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Steel Making

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...



Hardening High-speed Steels






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels. The
most ordinary tools used are for lathes and planers. The forging
should be done at carbon-steel heat. Rough-grind while still hot
and preheat to about carbon-steel hardening heat, then heat quickly
in high-speed furnace to white heat, and quench in oil. If a very
hard substance is to be cut, the point of tool may be quenched in
kerosene or water and when nearly black, finish cooling in oil.
Tempering must be done to suit the material to be cut. For cutting
cast iron, brass castings, or hard steel, tempering should be done
merely to take strains out of steel.

On ordinary machinery steel or nickel steel the temper can be drawn
to a dark blue or up to 900 deg.F. If the tool is of a special form
or character, the risk of melting or scaling the point cannot be
taken. In these cases the tool should be packed, but if there is
no packing equipment, a tool can be heated to as high heat as is
safe without risk to cutting edges, and cyanide or prussiate of
potash can be sprinkled over the face and then quenched in oil.

Some very adverse criticism may be heard on this point, but experience
has proved that such tools will stand up very nicely and be perfectly
free from scales or pipes. Where packing cannot be done, milling
cutters, and tools to be hardened all over, can be placed in muffled
furnace, brought to 2,220 deg. and quenched in oil. All such tools,
however, must be preheated slowly to 1,400 to 1,500 deg. then placed in
a high-speed furnace and brought up quickly. Do not soak high-speed
steel at high heats. Quench in oil.

We must bear in mind that the heating furnace is likely to expand
tools, therefore provision must be made to leave extra stock to
take care of such expansion. Tools with shanks such as counter
bores, taps, reamers, drills, etc., should be heated no further
than they are wanted hard, and quench in oil. If a forge is not
at hand and heating must be done, use a muffle furnace and cover
small shanks with a paste from fire clay or ground asbestos. Hollow
mills, spring threading dies, and large cutting tools with small
shanks should have the holes thoroughly packed or covered with
asbestos cement as far as they are wanted soft.





Next: Cutting-off Steel From Bar

Previous: Quality And Structure



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