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Steel Making

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

High-carbon Machinery Steel


The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is hardly
ever above 60 points or 0.60 per cent. Annealing such steel is
generally in quantity production and does not require the care that
the other steels need because it is very largely a much cheaper
product and a great deal of material is generally removed from
the outside surface.

The purpose for which this steel is annealed is a deciding factor
as to what heat to give it. If it is for machineability only, the
steel requires to be brought up slowly to just below the critical and
then slowly cooled in the furnace or ash pit. It must be thoroughly
covered so that there will be no access of cool air. If the annealing
is to increase ductility to the maximum extent it should be slowly
heated to slightly over the upper critical temperature and kept at
this heat for a length of time necessary for a thorough penetration
to the core, after which it can be cooled to about 1,200 deg.F., then
reheated to about 1,360 deg.F., when it can be removed and put in an
ash pit or covered with lime. If the annealing is just to relieve
strains, slow heating is not necessary, but the steel must be brought
up to a temperature not much less than a forging or rolling heat
and gradually cooled. Covering in this case is only necessary in
steel of a carbon content of more than 40 points.

Next: Annealing In Bone

Previous: Annealing Alloy Steel

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