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Steel Making

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

High-carbon Machinery Steel


The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is hardly
ever above 60 points or 0.60 per cent. Annealing such steel is
generally in quantity production and does not require the care that
the other steels need because it is very largely a much cheaper
product and a great deal of material is generally removed from
the outside surface.

The purpose for which this steel is annealed is a deciding factor
as to what heat to give it. If it is for machineability only, the
steel requires to be brought up slowly to just below the critical and
then slowly cooled in the furnace or ash pit. It must be thoroughly
covered so that there will be no access of cool air. If the annealing
is to increase ductility to the maximum extent it should be slowly
heated to slightly over the upper critical temperature and kept at
this heat for a length of time necessary for a thorough penetration
to the core, after which it can be cooled to about 1,200 deg.F., then
reheated to about 1,360 deg.F., when it can be removed and put in an
ash pit or covered with lime. If the annealing is just to relieve
strains, slow heating is not necessary, but the steel must be brought
up to a temperature not much less than a forging or rolling heat
and gradually cooled. Covering in this case is only necessary in
steel of a carbon content of more than 40 points.

Next: Annealing In Bone

Previous: Annealing Alloy Steel

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