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Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

High-carbon Machinery Steel


The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is hardly
ever above 60 points or 0.60 per cent. Annealing such steel is
generally in quantity production and does not require the care that
the other steels need because it is very largely a much cheaper
product and a great deal of material is generally removed from
the outside surface.

The purpose for which this steel is annealed is a deciding factor
as to what heat to give it. If it is for machineability only, the
steel requires to be brought up slowly to just below the critical and
then slowly cooled in the furnace or ash pit. It must be thoroughly
covered so that there will be no access of cool air. If the annealing
is to increase ductility to the maximum extent it should be slowly
heated to slightly over the upper critical temperature and kept at
this heat for a length of time necessary for a thorough penetration
to the core, after which it can be cooled to about 1,200 deg.F., then
reheated to about 1,360 deg.F., when it can be removed and put in an
ash pit or covered with lime. If the annealing is just to relieve
strains, slow heating is not necessary, but the steel must be brought
up to a temperature not much less than a forging or rolling heat
and gradually cooled. Covering in this case is only necessary in
steel of a carbon content of more than 40 points.

Next: Annealing In Bone

Previous: Annealing Alloy Steel

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