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Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

High-carbon Machinery Steel


The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is hardly
ever above 60 points or 0.60 per cent. Annealing such steel is
generally in quantity production and does not require the care that
the other steels need because it is very largely a much cheaper
product and a great deal of material is generally removed from
the outside surface.

The purpose for which this steel is annealed is a deciding factor
as to what heat to give it. If it is for machineability only, the
steel requires to be brought up slowly to just below the critical and
then slowly cooled in the furnace or ash pit. It must be thoroughly
covered so that there will be no access of cool air. If the annealing
is to increase ductility to the maximum extent it should be slowly
heated to slightly over the upper critical temperature and kept at
this heat for a length of time necessary for a thorough penetration
to the core, after which it can be cooled to about 1,200 deg.F., then
reheated to about 1,360 deg.F., when it can be removed and put in an
ash pit or covered with lime. If the annealing is just to relieve
strains, slow heating is not necessary, but the steel must be brought
up to a temperature not much less than a forging or rolling heat
and gradually cooled. Covering in this case is only necessary in
steel of a carbon content of more than 40 points.

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