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Steel Making

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

High-carbon Machinery Steel


The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is hardly
ever above 60 points or 0.60 per cent. Annealing such steel is
generally in quantity production and does not require the care that
the other steels need because it is very largely a much cheaper
product and a great deal of material is generally removed from
the outside surface.

The purpose for which this steel is annealed is a deciding factor
as to what heat to give it. If it is for machineability only, the
steel requires to be brought up slowly to just below the critical and
then slowly cooled in the furnace or ash pit. It must be thoroughly
covered so that there will be no access of cool air. If the annealing
is to increase ductility to the maximum extent it should be slowly
heated to slightly over the upper critical temperature and kept at
this heat for a length of time necessary for a thorough penetration
to the core, after which it can be cooled to about 1,200 deg.F., then
reheated to about 1,360 deg.F., when it can be removed and put in an
ash pit or covered with lime. If the annealing is just to relieve
strains, slow heating is not necessary, but the steel must be brought
up to a temperature not much less than a forging or rolling heat
and gradually cooled. Covering in this case is only necessary in
steel of a carbon content of more than 40 points.

Next: Annealing In Bone

Previous: Annealing Alloy Steel

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