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Steel Making

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

High-carbon Machinery Steel


The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is hardly
ever above 60 points or 0.60 per cent. Annealing such steel is
generally in quantity production and does not require the care that
the other steels need because it is very largely a much cheaper
product and a great deal of material is generally removed from
the outside surface.

The purpose for which this steel is annealed is a deciding factor
as to what heat to give it. If it is for machineability only, the
steel requires to be brought up slowly to just below the critical and
then slowly cooled in the furnace or ash pit. It must be thoroughly
covered so that there will be no access of cool air. If the annealing
is to increase ductility to the maximum extent it should be slowly
heated to slightly over the upper critical temperature and kept at
this heat for a length of time necessary for a thorough penetration
to the core, after which it can be cooled to about 1,200 deg.F., then
reheated to about 1,360 deg.F., when it can be removed and put in an
ash pit or covered with lime. If the annealing is just to relieve
strains, slow heating is not necessary, but the steel must be brought
up to a temperature not much less than a forging or rolling heat
and gradually cooled. Covering in this case is only necessary in
steel of a carbon content of more than 40 points.

Next: Annealing In Bone

Previous: Annealing Alloy Steel

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