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Steel Making

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

High-carbon Machinery Steel


The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is hardly
ever above 60 points or 0.60 per cent. Annealing such steel is
generally in quantity production and does not require the care that
the other steels need because it is very largely a much cheaper
product and a great deal of material is generally removed from
the outside surface.

The purpose for which this steel is annealed is a deciding factor
as to what heat to give it. If it is for machineability only, the
steel requires to be brought up slowly to just below the critical and
then slowly cooled in the furnace or ash pit. It must be thoroughly
covered so that there will be no access of cool air. If the annealing
is to increase ductility to the maximum extent it should be slowly
heated to slightly over the upper critical temperature and kept at
this heat for a length of time necessary for a thorough penetration
to the core, after which it can be cooled to about 1,200 deg.F., then
reheated to about 1,360 deg.F., when it can be removed and put in an
ash pit or covered with lime. If the annealing is just to relieve
strains, slow heating is not necessary, but the steel must be brought
up to a temperature not much less than a forging or rolling heat
and gradually cooled. Covering in this case is only necessary in
steel of a carbon content of more than 40 points.

Next: Annealing In Bone

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