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Steel Making

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

High-carbon Machinery Steel


The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is hardly
ever above 60 points or 0.60 per cent. Annealing such steel is
generally in quantity production and does not require the care that
the other steels need because it is very largely a much cheaper
product and a great deal of material is generally removed from
the outside surface.

The purpose for which this steel is annealed is a deciding factor
as to what heat to give it. If it is for machineability only, the
steel requires to be brought up slowly to just below the critical and
then slowly cooled in the furnace or ash pit. It must be thoroughly
covered so that there will be no access of cool air. If the annealing
is to increase ductility to the maximum extent it should be slowly
heated to slightly over the upper critical temperature and kept at
this heat for a length of time necessary for a thorough penetration
to the core, after which it can be cooled to about 1,200 deg.F., then
reheated to about 1,360 deg.F., when it can be removed and put in an
ash pit or covered with lime. If the annealing is just to relieve
strains, slow heating is not necessary, but the steel must be brought
up to a temperature not much less than a forging or rolling heat
and gradually cooled. Covering in this case is only necessary in
steel of a carbon content of more than 40 points.

Next: Annealing In Bone

Previous: Annealing Alloy Steel

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