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Steel Making

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

High-carbon Machinery Steel


The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is hardly
ever above 60 points or 0.60 per cent. Annealing such steel is
generally in quantity production and does not require the care that
the other steels need because it is very largely a much cheaper
product and a great deal of material is generally removed from
the outside surface.

The purpose for which this steel is annealed is a deciding factor
as to what heat to give it. If it is for machineability only, the
steel requires to be brought up slowly to just below the critical and
then slowly cooled in the furnace or ash pit. It must be thoroughly
covered so that there will be no access of cool air. If the annealing
is to increase ductility to the maximum extent it should be slowly
heated to slightly over the upper critical temperature and kept at
this heat for a length of time necessary for a thorough penetration
to the core, after which it can be cooled to about 1,200 deg.F., then
reheated to about 1,360 deg.F., when it can be removed and put in an
ash pit or covered with lime. If the annealing is just to relieve
strains, slow heating is not necessary, but the steel must be brought
up to a temperature not much less than a forging or rolling heat
and gradually cooled. Covering in this case is only necessary in
steel of a carbon content of more than 40 points.

Next: Annealing In Bone

Previous: Annealing Alloy Steel

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