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Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

High-carbon Machinery Steel


The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is hardly
ever above 60 points or 0.60 per cent. Annealing such steel is
generally in quantity production and does not require the care that
the other steels need because it is very largely a much cheaper
product and a great deal of material is generally removed from
the outside surface.

The purpose for which this steel is annealed is a deciding factor
as to what heat to give it. If it is for machineability only, the
steel requires to be brought up slowly to just below the critical and
then slowly cooled in the furnace or ash pit. It must be thoroughly
covered so that there will be no access of cool air. If the annealing
is to increase ductility to the maximum extent it should be slowly
heated to slightly over the upper critical temperature and kept at
this heat for a length of time necessary for a thorough penetration
to the core, after which it can be cooled to about 1,200 deg.F., then
reheated to about 1,360 deg.F., when it can be removed and put in an
ash pit or covered with lime. If the annealing is just to relieve
strains, slow heating is not necessary, but the steel must be brought
up to a temperature not much less than a forging or rolling heat
and gradually cooled. Covering in this case is only necessary in
steel of a carbon content of more than 40 points.

Next: Annealing In Bone

Previous: Annealing Alloy Steel

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