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The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

High-carbon Machinery Steel


The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is hardly
ever above 60 points or 0.60 per cent. Annealing such steel is
generally in quantity production and does not require the care that
the other steels need because it is very largely a much cheaper
product and a great deal of material is generally removed from
the outside surface.

The purpose for which this steel is annealed is a deciding factor
as to what heat to give it. If it is for machineability only, the
steel requires to be brought up slowly to just below the critical and
then slowly cooled in the furnace or ash pit. It must be thoroughly
covered so that there will be no access of cool air. If the annealing
is to increase ductility to the maximum extent it should be slowly
heated to slightly over the upper critical temperature and kept at
this heat for a length of time necessary for a thorough penetration
to the core, after which it can be cooled to about 1,200 deg.F., then
reheated to about 1,360 deg.F., when it can be removed and put in an
ash pit or covered with lime. If the annealing is just to relieve
strains, slow heating is not necessary, but the steel must be brought
up to a temperature not much less than a forging or rolling heat
and gradually cooled. Covering in this case is only necessary in
steel of a carbon content of more than 40 points.

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