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Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...



Lathe And Planer Tools






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly
desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scaling
heat, that is a lemon heat (1,800 to 2,000 deg.F.), and forge uniformly.
Reheat the tool for further forging directly the steel begins to
stiffen under the hammer. Under no circumstances forge the steel
when the temperature falls below a dark lemon to an orange color
about 1,700 deg.F. Reheat as often as is necessary to finish forging
the tool to shape. Allow the tool to cool after forging by burying
the tool in dry ashes or lime. Do not place on the damp ground
or in a draught of air.

The heating for forging should be done preferably in a pipe or
muffle furnace but if this is not convenient use a good clean fire
with plenty of fuel between the blast pipe and the tool. Never
allow the tool to soak after the desired forging heat has been
reached. Do not heat the tool further back than is necessary to
shape the tool, but give the tool sufficient heat. See that the
back of the tool is flatly dressed to provide proper support under
the nose of the tool.

HARDENING HIGH-SPEED STEEL.--Slowly reheat the cutting edge of
the tool to a cherry red, 1,400 deg.F., then force the blast so as
to raise the temperature quickly to a full white heat, 2,200 to
2,250 deg.F., that is, until the tool starts to sweat at the cutting
face. Cool the point of the tool in a dry air blast or preferably
in oil, further cool in oil keeping the tool moving until the tool
has become black hot.

To remove hardening strains reheat the tool to from 500 to 1,100 deg.F.
Cool in oil or atmosphere. This second heat treatment adds to the
toughness of the tool and therefore to its life.

GRINDING TOOLS.--Grind tools to remove all scale. Use a quick-cutting,
dry, abrasive wheel. If using a wet wheel, be sure to use plenty
of water. Do not under any circumstances force the tool against
the wheel so as to draw the color, as this is likely to set up
checks on the surface of the tool to its detriment.





Next: For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools

Previous: Cutting-off Steel From Bar



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