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Steel Making

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...



Lathe And Planer Tools






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly
desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scaling
heat, that is a lemon heat (1,800 to 2,000 deg.F.), and forge uniformly.
Reheat the tool for further forging directly the steel begins to
stiffen under the hammer. Under no circumstances forge the steel
when the temperature falls below a dark lemon to an orange color
about 1,700 deg.F. Reheat as often as is necessary to finish forging
the tool to shape. Allow the tool to cool after forging by burying
the tool in dry ashes or lime. Do not place on the damp ground
or in a draught of air.

The heating for forging should be done preferably in a pipe or
muffle furnace but if this is not convenient use a good clean fire
with plenty of fuel between the blast pipe and the tool. Never
allow the tool to soak after the desired forging heat has been
reached. Do not heat the tool further back than is necessary to
shape the tool, but give the tool sufficient heat. See that the
back of the tool is flatly dressed to provide proper support under
the nose of the tool.

HARDENING HIGH-SPEED STEEL.--Slowly reheat the cutting edge of
the tool to a cherry red, 1,400 deg.F., then force the blast so as
to raise the temperature quickly to a full white heat, 2,200 to
2,250 deg.F., that is, until the tool starts to sweat at the cutting
face. Cool the point of the tool in a dry air blast or preferably
in oil, further cool in oil keeping the tool moving until the tool
has become black hot.

To remove hardening strains reheat the tool to from 500 to 1,100 deg.F.
Cool in oil or atmosphere. This second heat treatment adds to the
toughness of the tool and therefore to its life.

GRINDING TOOLS.--Grind tools to remove all scale. Use a quick-cutting,
dry, abrasive wheel. If using a wet wheel, be sure to use plenty
of water. Do not under any circumstances force the tool against
the wheel so as to draw the color, as this is likely to set up
checks on the surface of the tool to its detriment.





Next: For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools

Previous: Cutting-off Steel From Bar



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