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Steel Making

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Lathe And Planer Tools


FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly
desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scaling
heat, that is a lemon heat (1,800 to 2,000 deg.F.), and forge uniformly.
Reheat the tool for further forging directly the steel begins to
stiffen under the hammer. Under no circumstances forge the steel
when the temperature falls below a dark lemon to an orange color
about 1,700 deg.F. Reheat as often as is necessary to finish forging
the tool to shape. Allow the tool to cool after forging by burying
the tool in dry ashes or lime. Do not place on the damp ground
or in a draught of air.

The heating for forging should be done preferably in a pipe or
muffle furnace but if this is not convenient use a good clean fire
with plenty of fuel between the blast pipe and the tool. Never
allow the tool to soak after the desired forging heat has been
reached. Do not heat the tool further back than is necessary to
shape the tool, but give the tool sufficient heat. See that the
back of the tool is flatly dressed to provide proper support under
the nose of the tool.

HARDENING HIGH-SPEED STEEL.--Slowly reheat the cutting edge of
the tool to a cherry red, 1,400 deg.F., then force the blast so as
to raise the temperature quickly to a full white heat, 2,200 to
2,250 deg.F., that is, until the tool starts to sweat at the cutting
face. Cool the point of the tool in a dry air blast or preferably
in oil, further cool in oil keeping the tool moving until the tool
has become black hot.

To remove hardening strains reheat the tool to from 500 to 1,100 deg.F.
Cool in oil or atmosphere. This second heat treatment adds to the
toughness of the tool and therefore to its life.

GRINDING TOOLS.--Grind tools to remove all scale. Use a quick-cutting,
dry, abrasive wheel. If using a wet wheel, be sure to use plenty
of water. Do not under any circumstances force the tool against
the wheel so as to draw the color, as this is likely to set up
checks on the surface of the tool to its detriment.

Next: For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools

Previous: Cutting-off Steel From Bar

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