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S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Lathe And Planer Tools


FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly
desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scaling
heat, that is a lemon heat (1,800 to 2,000 deg.F.), and forge uniformly.
Reheat the tool for further forging directly the steel begins to
stiffen under the hammer. Under no circumstances forge the steel
when the temperature falls below a dark lemon to an orange color
about 1,700 deg.F. Reheat as often as is necessary to finish forging
the tool to shape. Allow the tool to cool after forging by burying
the tool in dry ashes or lime. Do not place on the damp ground
or in a draught of air.

The heating for forging should be done preferably in a pipe or
muffle furnace but if this is not convenient use a good clean fire
with plenty of fuel between the blast pipe and the tool. Never
allow the tool to soak after the desired forging heat has been
reached. Do not heat the tool further back than is necessary to
shape the tool, but give the tool sufficient heat. See that the
back of the tool is flatly dressed to provide proper support under
the nose of the tool.

HARDENING HIGH-SPEED STEEL.--Slowly reheat the cutting edge of
the tool to a cherry red, 1,400 deg.F., then force the blast so as
to raise the temperature quickly to a full white heat, 2,200 to
2,250 deg.F., that is, until the tool starts to sweat at the cutting
face. Cool the point of the tool in a dry air blast or preferably
in oil, further cool in oil keeping the tool moving until the tool
has become black hot.

To remove hardening strains reheat the tool to from 500 to 1,100 deg.F.
Cool in oil or atmosphere. This second heat treatment adds to the
toughness of the tool and therefore to its life.

GRINDING TOOLS.--Grind tools to remove all scale. Use a quick-cutting,
dry, abrasive wheel. If using a wet wheel, be sure to use plenty
of water. Do not under any circumstances force the tool against
the wheel so as to draw the color, as this is likely to set up
checks on the surface of the tool to its detriment.

Next: For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools

Previous: Cutting-off Steel From Bar

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