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Steel Making

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...



Lathe And Planer Tools






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly
desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scaling
heat, that is a lemon heat (1,800 to 2,000 deg.F.), and forge uniformly.
Reheat the tool for further forging directly the steel begins to
stiffen under the hammer. Under no circumstances forge the steel
when the temperature falls below a dark lemon to an orange color
about 1,700 deg.F. Reheat as often as is necessary to finish forging
the tool to shape. Allow the tool to cool after forging by burying
the tool in dry ashes or lime. Do not place on the damp ground
or in a draught of air.

The heating for forging should be done preferably in a pipe or
muffle furnace but if this is not convenient use a good clean fire
with plenty of fuel between the blast pipe and the tool. Never
allow the tool to soak after the desired forging heat has been
reached. Do not heat the tool further back than is necessary to
shape the tool, but give the tool sufficient heat. See that the
back of the tool is flatly dressed to provide proper support under
the nose of the tool.

HARDENING HIGH-SPEED STEEL.--Slowly reheat the cutting edge of
the tool to a cherry red, 1,400 deg.F., then force the blast so as
to raise the temperature quickly to a full white heat, 2,200 to
2,250 deg.F., that is, until the tool starts to sweat at the cutting
face. Cool the point of the tool in a dry air blast or preferably
in oil, further cool in oil keeping the tool moving until the tool
has become black hot.

To remove hardening strains reheat the tool to from 500 to 1,100 deg.F.
Cool in oil or atmosphere. This second heat treatment adds to the
toughness of the tool and therefore to its life.

GRINDING TOOLS.--Grind tools to remove all scale. Use a quick-cutting,
dry, abrasive wheel. If using a wet wheel, be sure to use plenty
of water. Do not under any circumstances force the tool against
the wheel so as to draw the color, as this is likely to set up
checks on the surface of the tool to its detriment.





Next: For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools

Previous: Cutting-off Steel From Bar



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