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Steel Making

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...



Lathe And Planer Tools






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly
desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scaling
heat, that is a lemon heat (1,800 to 2,000 deg.F.), and forge uniformly.
Reheat the tool for further forging directly the steel begins to
stiffen under the hammer. Under no circumstances forge the steel
when the temperature falls below a dark lemon to an orange color
about 1,700 deg.F. Reheat as often as is necessary to finish forging
the tool to shape. Allow the tool to cool after forging by burying
the tool in dry ashes or lime. Do not place on the damp ground
or in a draught of air.

The heating for forging should be done preferably in a pipe or
muffle furnace but if this is not convenient use a good clean fire
with plenty of fuel between the blast pipe and the tool. Never
allow the tool to soak after the desired forging heat has been
reached. Do not heat the tool further back than is necessary to
shape the tool, but give the tool sufficient heat. See that the
back of the tool is flatly dressed to provide proper support under
the nose of the tool.

HARDENING HIGH-SPEED STEEL.--Slowly reheat the cutting edge of
the tool to a cherry red, 1,400 deg.F., then force the blast so as
to raise the temperature quickly to a full white heat, 2,200 to
2,250 deg.F., that is, until the tool starts to sweat at the cutting
face. Cool the point of the tool in a dry air blast or preferably
in oil, further cool in oil keeping the tool moving until the tool
has become black hot.

To remove hardening strains reheat the tool to from 500 to 1,100 deg.F.
Cool in oil or atmosphere. This second heat treatment adds to the
toughness of the tool and therefore to its life.

GRINDING TOOLS.--Grind tools to remove all scale. Use a quick-cutting,
dry, abrasive wheel. If using a wet wheel, be sure to use plenty
of water. Do not under any circumstances force the tool against
the wheel so as to draw the color, as this is likely to set up
checks on the surface of the tool to its detriment.





Next: For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools

Previous: Cutting-off Steel From Bar



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