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Steel Making

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Lathe And Planer Tools


FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly
desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scaling
heat, that is a lemon heat (1,800 to 2,000 deg.F.), and forge uniformly.
Reheat the tool for further forging directly the steel begins to
stiffen under the hammer. Under no circumstances forge the steel
when the temperature falls below a dark lemon to an orange color
about 1,700 deg.F. Reheat as often as is necessary to finish forging
the tool to shape. Allow the tool to cool after forging by burying
the tool in dry ashes or lime. Do not place on the damp ground
or in a draught of air.

The heating for forging should be done preferably in a pipe or
muffle furnace but if this is not convenient use a good clean fire
with plenty of fuel between the blast pipe and the tool. Never
allow the tool to soak after the desired forging heat has been
reached. Do not heat the tool further back than is necessary to
shape the tool, but give the tool sufficient heat. See that the
back of the tool is flatly dressed to provide proper support under
the nose of the tool.

HARDENING HIGH-SPEED STEEL.--Slowly reheat the cutting edge of
the tool to a cherry red, 1,400 deg.F., then force the blast so as
to raise the temperature quickly to a full white heat, 2,200 to
2,250 deg.F., that is, until the tool starts to sweat at the cutting
face. Cool the point of the tool in a dry air blast or preferably
in oil, further cool in oil keeping the tool moving until the tool
has become black hot.

To remove hardening strains reheat the tool to from 500 to 1,100 deg.F.
Cool in oil or atmosphere. This second heat treatment adds to the
toughness of the tool and therefore to its life.

GRINDING TOOLS.--Grind tools to remove all scale. Use a quick-cutting,
dry, abrasive wheel. If using a wet wheel, be sure to use plenty
of water. Do not under any circumstances force the tool against
the wheel so as to draw the color, as this is likely to set up
checks on the surface of the tool to its detriment.

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