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Steel Making

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...



Lathe And Planer Tools






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly
desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scaling
heat, that is a lemon heat (1,800 to 2,000 deg.F.), and forge uniformly.
Reheat the tool for further forging directly the steel begins to
stiffen under the hammer. Under no circumstances forge the steel
when the temperature falls below a dark lemon to an orange color
about 1,700 deg.F. Reheat as often as is necessary to finish forging
the tool to shape. Allow the tool to cool after forging by burying
the tool in dry ashes or lime. Do not place on the damp ground
or in a draught of air.

The heating for forging should be done preferably in a pipe or
muffle furnace but if this is not convenient use a good clean fire
with plenty of fuel between the blast pipe and the tool. Never
allow the tool to soak after the desired forging heat has been
reached. Do not heat the tool further back than is necessary to
shape the tool, but give the tool sufficient heat. See that the
back of the tool is flatly dressed to provide proper support under
the nose of the tool.

HARDENING HIGH-SPEED STEEL.--Slowly reheat the cutting edge of
the tool to a cherry red, 1,400 deg.F., then force the blast so as
to raise the temperature quickly to a full white heat, 2,200 to
2,250 deg.F., that is, until the tool starts to sweat at the cutting
face. Cool the point of the tool in a dry air blast or preferably
in oil, further cool in oil keeping the tool moving until the tool
has become black hot.

To remove hardening strains reheat the tool to from 500 to 1,100 deg.F.
Cool in oil or atmosphere. This second heat treatment adds to the
toughness of the tool and therefore to its life.

GRINDING TOOLS.--Grind tools to remove all scale. Use a quick-cutting,
dry, abrasive wheel. If using a wet wheel, be sure to use plenty
of water. Do not under any circumstances force the tool against
the wheel so as to draw the color, as this is likely to set up
checks on the surface of the tool to its detriment.





Next: For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools

Previous: Cutting-off Steel From Bar



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