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Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...



Lathe And Planer Tools






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly
desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scaling
heat, that is a lemon heat (1,800 to 2,000 deg.F.), and forge uniformly.
Reheat the tool for further forging directly the steel begins to
stiffen under the hammer. Under no circumstances forge the steel
when the temperature falls below a dark lemon to an orange color
about 1,700 deg.F. Reheat as often as is necessary to finish forging
the tool to shape. Allow the tool to cool after forging by burying
the tool in dry ashes or lime. Do not place on the damp ground
or in a draught of air.

The heating for forging should be done preferably in a pipe or
muffle furnace but if this is not convenient use a good clean fire
with plenty of fuel between the blast pipe and the tool. Never
allow the tool to soak after the desired forging heat has been
reached. Do not heat the tool further back than is necessary to
shape the tool, but give the tool sufficient heat. See that the
back of the tool is flatly dressed to provide proper support under
the nose of the tool.

HARDENING HIGH-SPEED STEEL.--Slowly reheat the cutting edge of
the tool to a cherry red, 1,400 deg.F., then force the blast so as
to raise the temperature quickly to a full white heat, 2,200 to
2,250 deg.F., that is, until the tool starts to sweat at the cutting
face. Cool the point of the tool in a dry air blast or preferably
in oil, further cool in oil keeping the tool moving until the tool
has become black hot.

To remove hardening strains reheat the tool to from 500 to 1,100 deg.F.
Cool in oil or atmosphere. This second heat treatment adds to the
toughness of the tool and therefore to its life.

GRINDING TOOLS.--Grind tools to remove all scale. Use a quick-cutting,
dry, abrasive wheel. If using a wet wheel, be sure to use plenty
of water. Do not under any circumstances force the tool against
the wheel so as to draw the color, as this is likely to set up
checks on the surface of the tool to its detriment.





Next: For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools

Previous: Cutting-off Steel From Bar



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