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Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...



Lathe And Planer Tools






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly
desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scaling
heat, that is a lemon heat (1,800 to 2,000 deg.F.), and forge uniformly.
Reheat the tool for further forging directly the steel begins to
stiffen under the hammer. Under no circumstances forge the steel
when the temperature falls below a dark lemon to an orange color
about 1,700 deg.F. Reheat as often as is necessary to finish forging
the tool to shape. Allow the tool to cool after forging by burying
the tool in dry ashes or lime. Do not place on the damp ground
or in a draught of air.

The heating for forging should be done preferably in a pipe or
muffle furnace but if this is not convenient use a good clean fire
with plenty of fuel between the blast pipe and the tool. Never
allow the tool to soak after the desired forging heat has been
reached. Do not heat the tool further back than is necessary to
shape the tool, but give the tool sufficient heat. See that the
back of the tool is flatly dressed to provide proper support under
the nose of the tool.

HARDENING HIGH-SPEED STEEL.--Slowly reheat the cutting edge of
the tool to a cherry red, 1,400 deg.F., then force the blast so as
to raise the temperature quickly to a full white heat, 2,200 to
2,250 deg.F., that is, until the tool starts to sweat at the cutting
face. Cool the point of the tool in a dry air blast or preferably
in oil, further cool in oil keeping the tool moving until the tool
has become black hot.

To remove hardening strains reheat the tool to from 500 to 1,100 deg.F.
Cool in oil or atmosphere. This second heat treatment adds to the
toughness of the tool and therefore to its life.

GRINDING TOOLS.--Grind tools to remove all scale. Use a quick-cutting,
dry, abrasive wheel. If using a wet wheel, be sure to use plenty
of water. Do not under any circumstances force the tool against
the wheel so as to draw the color, as this is likely to set up
checks on the surface of the tool to its detriment.





Next: For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools

Previous: Cutting-off Steel From Bar



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