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Steel Making

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...



Lathe And Planer Tools






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly
desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scaling
heat, that is a lemon heat (1,800 to 2,000 deg.F.), and forge uniformly.
Reheat the tool for further forging directly the steel begins to
stiffen under the hammer. Under no circumstances forge the steel
when the temperature falls below a dark lemon to an orange color
about 1,700 deg.F. Reheat as often as is necessary to finish forging
the tool to shape. Allow the tool to cool after forging by burying
the tool in dry ashes or lime. Do not place on the damp ground
or in a draught of air.

The heating for forging should be done preferably in a pipe or
muffle furnace but if this is not convenient use a good clean fire
with plenty of fuel between the blast pipe and the tool. Never
allow the tool to soak after the desired forging heat has been
reached. Do not heat the tool further back than is necessary to
shape the tool, but give the tool sufficient heat. See that the
back of the tool is flatly dressed to provide proper support under
the nose of the tool.

HARDENING HIGH-SPEED STEEL.--Slowly reheat the cutting edge of
the tool to a cherry red, 1,400 deg.F., then force the blast so as
to raise the temperature quickly to a full white heat, 2,200 to
2,250 deg.F., that is, until the tool starts to sweat at the cutting
face. Cool the point of the tool in a dry air blast or preferably
in oil, further cool in oil keeping the tool moving until the tool
has become black hot.

To remove hardening strains reheat the tool to from 500 to 1,100 deg.F.
Cool in oil or atmosphere. This second heat treatment adds to the
toughness of the tool and therefore to its life.

GRINDING TOOLS.--Grind tools to remove all scale. Use a quick-cutting,
dry, abrasive wheel. If using a wet wheel, be sure to use plenty
of water. Do not under any circumstances force the tool against
the wheel so as to draw the color, as this is likely to set up
checks on the surface of the tool to its detriment.





Next: For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools

Previous: Cutting-off Steel From Bar



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