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Steel Making

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...



Lathe And Planer Tools






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly
desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scaling
heat, that is a lemon heat (1,800 to 2,000 deg.F.), and forge uniformly.
Reheat the tool for further forging directly the steel begins to
stiffen under the hammer. Under no circumstances forge the steel
when the temperature falls below a dark lemon to an orange color
about 1,700 deg.F. Reheat as often as is necessary to finish forging
the tool to shape. Allow the tool to cool after forging by burying
the tool in dry ashes or lime. Do not place on the damp ground
or in a draught of air.

The heating for forging should be done preferably in a pipe or
muffle furnace but if this is not convenient use a good clean fire
with plenty of fuel between the blast pipe and the tool. Never
allow the tool to soak after the desired forging heat has been
reached. Do not heat the tool further back than is necessary to
shape the tool, but give the tool sufficient heat. See that the
back of the tool is flatly dressed to provide proper support under
the nose of the tool.

HARDENING HIGH-SPEED STEEL.--Slowly reheat the cutting edge of
the tool to a cherry red, 1,400 deg.F., then force the blast so as
to raise the temperature quickly to a full white heat, 2,200 to
2,250 deg.F., that is, until the tool starts to sweat at the cutting
face. Cool the point of the tool in a dry air blast or preferably
in oil, further cool in oil keeping the tool moving until the tool
has become black hot.

To remove hardening strains reheat the tool to from 500 to 1,100 deg.F.
Cool in oil or atmosphere. This second heat treatment adds to the
toughness of the tool and therefore to its life.

GRINDING TOOLS.--Grind tools to remove all scale. Use a quick-cutting,
dry, abrasive wheel. If using a wet wheel, be sure to use plenty
of water. Do not under any circumstances force the tool against
the wheel so as to draw the color, as this is likely to set up
checks on the surface of the tool to its detriment.





Next: For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools

Previous: Cutting-off Steel From Bar



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