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High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...



Lathe And Planer Tools






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly
desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scaling
heat, that is a lemon heat (1,800 to 2,000 deg.F.), and forge uniformly.
Reheat the tool for further forging directly the steel begins to
stiffen under the hammer. Under no circumstances forge the steel
when the temperature falls below a dark lemon to an orange color
about 1,700 deg.F. Reheat as often as is necessary to finish forging
the tool to shape. Allow the tool to cool after forging by burying
the tool in dry ashes or lime. Do not place on the damp ground
or in a draught of air.

The heating for forging should be done preferably in a pipe or
muffle furnace but if this is not convenient use a good clean fire
with plenty of fuel between the blast pipe and the tool. Never
allow the tool to soak after the desired forging heat has been
reached. Do not heat the tool further back than is necessary to
shape the tool, but give the tool sufficient heat. See that the
back of the tool is flatly dressed to provide proper support under
the nose of the tool.

HARDENING HIGH-SPEED STEEL.--Slowly reheat the cutting edge of
the tool to a cherry red, 1,400 deg.F., then force the blast so as
to raise the temperature quickly to a full white heat, 2,200 to
2,250 deg.F., that is, until the tool starts to sweat at the cutting
face. Cool the point of the tool in a dry air blast or preferably
in oil, further cool in oil keeping the tool moving until the tool
has become black hot.

To remove hardening strains reheat the tool to from 500 to 1,100 deg.F.
Cool in oil or atmosphere. This second heat treatment adds to the
toughness of the tool and therefore to its life.

GRINDING TOOLS.--Grind tools to remove all scale. Use a quick-cutting,
dry, abrasive wheel. If using a wet wheel, be sure to use plenty
of water. Do not under any circumstances force the tool against
the wheel so as to draw the color, as this is likely to set up
checks on the surface of the tool to its detriment.





Next: For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools

Previous: Cutting-off Steel From Bar



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