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Steel Making

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...



The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was selected
at the option of the manufacturer from the following standard S.
A. E. steels, the composition of which are given in Table 12,


Steel No X-3,340 6,140
Carbon, minimum 0.350 0.350
Carbon, maximum 0.450 0.450
Manganese, minimum 0.450 0.500
Manganese, maximum 0.750 0.800
Phosphorus, maximum 0.040 0.040
Sulphur, maximum 0.045 0.045
Nickel, minimum 2.750
Nickel, maximum 3.250
Chromium, minimum 0.700 0.800
Chromium, maximum 0.950 1.100
Vanadium, minimum 0.150

All gears were heat-treated to a scleroscope hardness of from 55
to 55. The heat treatment used to secure this hardness consisted
in quenching the forgings from a temperature of 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F.
in oil and annealing for good machineability at a temperature of
from 1,300 to 1,350 deg.F. Forgings treated in this manner showed a
Brinell hardness of from 177 to 217.

Next: Rate Of Cooling

Previous: Highly Stressed Parts

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