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Steel Making

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...



The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was selected
at the option of the manufacturer from the following standard S.
A. E. steels, the composition of which are given in Table 12,


Steel No X-3,340 6,140
Carbon, minimum 0.350 0.350
Carbon, maximum 0.450 0.450
Manganese, minimum 0.450 0.500
Manganese, maximum 0.750 0.800
Phosphorus, maximum 0.040 0.040
Sulphur, maximum 0.045 0.045
Nickel, minimum 2.750
Nickel, maximum 3.250
Chromium, minimum 0.700 0.800
Chromium, maximum 0.950 1.100
Vanadium, minimum 0.150

All gears were heat-treated to a scleroscope hardness of from 55
to 55. The heat treatment used to secure this hardness consisted
in quenching the forgings from a temperature of 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F.
in oil and annealing for good machineability at a temperature of
from 1,300 to 1,350 deg.F. Forgings treated in this manner showed a
Brinell hardness of from 177 to 217.

Next: Rate Of Cooling

Previous: Highly Stressed Parts

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