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Steel Making

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...



The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was selected
at the option of the manufacturer from the following standard S.
A. E. steels, the composition of which are given in Table 12,


Steel No X-3,340 6,140
Carbon, minimum 0.350 0.350
Carbon, maximum 0.450 0.450
Manganese, minimum 0.450 0.500
Manganese, maximum 0.750 0.800
Phosphorus, maximum 0.040 0.040
Sulphur, maximum 0.045 0.045
Nickel, minimum 2.750
Nickel, maximum 3.250
Chromium, minimum 0.700 0.800
Chromium, maximum 0.950 1.100
Vanadium, minimum 0.150

All gears were heat-treated to a scleroscope hardness of from 55
to 55. The heat treatment used to secure this hardness consisted
in quenching the forgings from a temperature of 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F.
in oil and annealing for good machineability at a temperature of
from 1,300 to 1,350 deg.F. Forgings treated in this manner showed a
Brinell hardness of from 177 to 217.

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