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Steel Making

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...



The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was selected
at the option of the manufacturer from the following standard S.
A. E. steels, the composition of which are given in Table 12,


Steel No X-3,340 6,140
Carbon, minimum 0.350 0.350
Carbon, maximum 0.450 0.450
Manganese, minimum 0.450 0.500
Manganese, maximum 0.750 0.800
Phosphorus, maximum 0.040 0.040
Sulphur, maximum 0.045 0.045
Nickel, minimum 2.750
Nickel, maximum 3.250
Chromium, minimum 0.700 0.800
Chromium, maximum 0.950 1.100
Vanadium, minimum 0.150

All gears were heat-treated to a scleroscope hardness of from 55
to 55. The heat treatment used to secure this hardness consisted
in quenching the forgings from a temperature of 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F.
in oil and annealing for good machineability at a temperature of
from 1,300 to 1,350 deg.F. Forgings treated in this manner showed a
Brinell hardness of from 177 to 217.

Next: Rate Of Cooling

Previous: Highly Stressed Parts

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