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Steel Making

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...



Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Johnston
on two types of steel: one containing 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.012
per cent phosphorus, and 0.860 per cent copper, and the other 0.365
per cent carbon, 0.053 per cent phosphorus, and 0.030 per cent
copper. The accompanying chart in Fig. 13 shows that high-copper
steel has decided superiority in tensile strength, yield point and
ultimate strength, while the ductility is practically the same.
Hardness tests by both methods show high-copper steel to be harder
than low-copper, and the Charpy shock tests show high-copper steel
also superior to low-copper. The tests confirm those made by Stead,
showing that the behavior of copper steel resembles that of nickel
steel. The high-copper steels show finer grain than the low-copper.
The quenched and drawn specimens of high-copper steel were found
to be slightly more martensitic.





Next: High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel

Previous: Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels



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