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Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel


This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Johnston
on two types of steel: one containing 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.012
per cent phosphorus, and 0.860 per cent copper, and the other 0.365
per cent carbon, 0.053 per cent phosphorus, and 0.030 per cent
copper. The accompanying chart in Fig. 13 shows that high-copper
steel has decided superiority in tensile strength, yield point and
ultimate strength, while the ductility is practically the same.
Hardness tests by both methods show high-copper steel to be harder
than low-copper, and the Charpy shock tests show high-copper steel
also superior to low-copper. The tests confirm those made by Stead,
showing that the behavior of copper steel resembles that of nickel
steel. The high-copper steels show finer grain than the low-copper.
The quenched and drawn specimens of high-copper steel were found
to be slightly more martensitic.

Next: High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel

Previous: Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels

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