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Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...



Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Johnston
on two types of steel: one containing 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.012
per cent phosphorus, and 0.860 per cent copper, and the other 0.365
per cent carbon, 0.053 per cent phosphorus, and 0.030 per cent
copper. The accompanying chart in Fig. 13 shows that high-copper
steel has decided superiority in tensile strength, yield point and
ultimate strength, while the ductility is practically the same.
Hardness tests by both methods show high-copper steel to be harder
than low-copper, and the Charpy shock tests show high-copper steel
also superior to low-copper. The tests confirm those made by Stead,
showing that the behavior of copper steel resembles that of nickel
steel. The high-copper steels show finer grain than the low-copper.
The quenched and drawn specimens of high-copper steel were found
to be slightly more martensitic.





Next: High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel

Previous: Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels



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