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Steel Making

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel


This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Johnston
on two types of steel: one containing 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.012
per cent phosphorus, and 0.860 per cent copper, and the other 0.365
per cent carbon, 0.053 per cent phosphorus, and 0.030 per cent
copper. The accompanying chart in Fig. 13 shows that high-copper
steel has decided superiority in tensile strength, yield point and
ultimate strength, while the ductility is practically the same.
Hardness tests by both methods show high-copper steel to be harder
than low-copper, and the Charpy shock tests show high-copper steel
also superior to low-copper. The tests confirm those made by Stead,
showing that the behavior of copper steel resembles that of nickel
steel. The high-copper steels show finer grain than the low-copper.
The quenched and drawn specimens of high-copper steel were found
to be slightly more martensitic.

Next: High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel

Previous: Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels

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