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Steel Making

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...



Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Johnston
on two types of steel: one containing 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.012
per cent phosphorus, and 0.860 per cent copper, and the other 0.365
per cent carbon, 0.053 per cent phosphorus, and 0.030 per cent
copper. The accompanying chart in Fig. 13 shows that high-copper
steel has decided superiority in tensile strength, yield point and
ultimate strength, while the ductility is practically the same.
Hardness tests by both methods show high-copper steel to be harder
than low-copper, and the Charpy shock tests show high-copper steel
also superior to low-copper. The tests confirm those made by Stead,
showing that the behavior of copper steel resembles that of nickel
steel. The high-copper steels show finer grain than the low-copper.
The quenched and drawn specimens of high-copper steel were found
to be slightly more martensitic.





Next: High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel

Previous: Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels



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