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Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...



Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Johnston
on two types of steel: one containing 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.012
per cent phosphorus, and 0.860 per cent copper, and the other 0.365
per cent carbon, 0.053 per cent phosphorus, and 0.030 per cent
copper. The accompanying chart in Fig. 13 shows that high-copper
steel has decided superiority in tensile strength, yield point and
ultimate strength, while the ductility is practically the same.
Hardness tests by both methods show high-copper steel to be harder
than low-copper, and the Charpy shock tests show high-copper steel
also superior to low-copper. The tests confirm those made by Stead,
showing that the behavior of copper steel resembles that of nickel
steel. The high-copper steels show finer grain than the low-copper.
The quenched and drawn specimens of high-copper steel were found
to be slightly more martensitic.





Next: High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel

Previous: Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels



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