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Steel Making

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel


This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Johnston
on two types of steel: one containing 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.012
per cent phosphorus, and 0.860 per cent copper, and the other 0.365
per cent carbon, 0.053 per cent phosphorus, and 0.030 per cent
copper. The accompanying chart in Fig. 13 shows that high-copper
steel has decided superiority in tensile strength, yield point and
ultimate strength, while the ductility is practically the same.
Hardness tests by both methods show high-copper steel to be harder
than low-copper, and the Charpy shock tests show high-copper steel
also superior to low-copper. The tests confirm those made by Stead,
showing that the behavior of copper steel resembles that of nickel
steel. The high-copper steels show finer grain than the low-copper.
The quenched and drawn specimens of high-copper steel were found
to be slightly more martensitic.

Next: High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel

Previous: Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels

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