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Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...



Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Johnston
on two types of steel: one containing 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.012
per cent phosphorus, and 0.860 per cent copper, and the other 0.365
per cent carbon, 0.053 per cent phosphorus, and 0.030 per cent
copper. The accompanying chart in Fig. 13 shows that high-copper
steel has decided superiority in tensile strength, yield point and
ultimate strength, while the ductility is practically the same.
Hardness tests by both methods show high-copper steel to be harder
than low-copper, and the Charpy shock tests show high-copper steel
also superior to low-copper. The tests confirm those made by Stead,
showing that the behavior of copper steel resembles that of nickel
steel. The high-copper steels show finer grain than the low-copper.
The quenched and drawn specimens of high-copper steel were found
to be slightly more martensitic.





Next: High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel

Previous: Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels



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