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Steel Making

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...



Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Johnston
on two types of steel: one containing 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.012
per cent phosphorus, and 0.860 per cent copper, and the other 0.365
per cent carbon, 0.053 per cent phosphorus, and 0.030 per cent
copper. The accompanying chart in Fig. 13 shows that high-copper
steel has decided superiority in tensile strength, yield point and
ultimate strength, while the ductility is practically the same.
Hardness tests by both methods show high-copper steel to be harder
than low-copper, and the Charpy shock tests show high-copper steel
also superior to low-copper. The tests confirm those made by Stead,
showing that the behavior of copper steel resembles that of nickel
steel. The high-copper steels show finer grain than the low-copper.
The quenched and drawn specimens of high-copper steel were found
to be slightly more martensitic.





Next: High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel

Previous: Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels



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