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Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...



Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Johnston
on two types of steel: one containing 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.012
per cent phosphorus, and 0.860 per cent copper, and the other 0.365
per cent carbon, 0.053 per cent phosphorus, and 0.030 per cent
copper. The accompanying chart in Fig. 13 shows that high-copper
steel has decided superiority in tensile strength, yield point and
ultimate strength, while the ductility is practically the same.
Hardness tests by both methods show high-copper steel to be harder
than low-copper, and the Charpy shock tests show high-copper steel
also superior to low-copper. The tests confirm those made by Stead,
showing that the behavior of copper steel resembles that of nickel
steel. The high-copper steels show finer grain than the low-copper.
The quenched and drawn specimens of high-copper steel were found
to be slightly more martensitic.





Next: High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel

Previous: Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels



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