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Steel Making

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing


Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for carburizing
have been generally recognized in the past from points of view as
close temperature regulation, decreased attendance, and greater
convenience, very little information has been published regarding
the consumption of gas for this process. It has therefore been a
matter of great difficulty to obtain authentic information upon
this point, either from makers or users of such furnaces.

In view of this, the details of actual consumption of gas on a
regular customer's order job will be of interest. The Revergen
furnace, manufactured by the Davis Furnace Company, Luton, Bedford,
England, was used on this job, and is provided with regenerators
and fired with illuminating gas at ordinary pressure, the air being
introduced to the furnace at a slight pressure of 3 to 4 in. water
gage. The material was charged into a cold furnace, raised to 1,652 deg.F.,
and maintained at that temperature for 8 hr. to give the necessary
depth of case. The work consisted of automobile gears packed in
six boxes, the total weight being 713 lb. The required temperature
of 1,652 deg.F. was obtained in 70 min. from lighting up, and a summary
of the data is shown in the following table:

Cubic Foot Total
Per Pound Number of
of Load Cubic Foot
Gas to raise furnace and charge from
cold to 1,652 deg.F., 70 min. 1.29 925
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 1st hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 2nd hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 3rd hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 4th hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 5th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 6th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 7th hour 0.45 325
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 8th hour 0.45 325

The overall gas consumption for this run of 9 hr. 10 min. was only
4.8 cu. ft. per pound of load.

Next: The Care Of Carburizing Compounds

Previous: A Satisfactory Luting Mixture

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