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SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing


Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for carburizing
have been generally recognized in the past from points of view as
close temperature regulation, decreased attendance, and greater
convenience, very little information has been published regarding
the consumption of gas for this process. It has therefore been a
matter of great difficulty to obtain authentic information upon
this point, either from makers or users of such furnaces.

In view of this, the details of actual consumption of gas on a
regular customer's order job will be of interest. The Revergen
furnace, manufactured by the Davis Furnace Company, Luton, Bedford,
England, was used on this job, and is provided with regenerators
and fired with illuminating gas at ordinary pressure, the air being
introduced to the furnace at a slight pressure of 3 to 4 in. water
gage. The material was charged into a cold furnace, raised to 1,652 deg.F.,
and maintained at that temperature for 8 hr. to give the necessary
depth of case. The work consisted of automobile gears packed in
six boxes, the total weight being 713 lb. The required temperature
of 1,652 deg.F. was obtained in 70 min. from lighting up, and a summary
of the data is shown in the following table:

Cubic Foot Total
Per Pound Number of
of Load Cubic Foot
Gas to raise furnace and charge from
cold to 1,652 deg.F., 70 min. 1.29 925
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 1st hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 2nd hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 3rd hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 4th hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 5th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 6th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 7th hour 0.45 325
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 8th hour 0.45 325

The overall gas consumption for this run of 9 hr. 10 min. was only
4.8 cu. ft. per pound of load.

Next: The Care Of Carburizing Compounds

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