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Steel Making

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing


Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for carburizing
have been generally recognized in the past from points of view as
close temperature regulation, decreased attendance, and greater
convenience, very little information has been published regarding
the consumption of gas for this process. It has therefore been a
matter of great difficulty to obtain authentic information upon
this point, either from makers or users of such furnaces.

In view of this, the details of actual consumption of gas on a
regular customer's order job will be of interest. The Revergen
furnace, manufactured by the Davis Furnace Company, Luton, Bedford,
England, was used on this job, and is provided with regenerators
and fired with illuminating gas at ordinary pressure, the air being
introduced to the furnace at a slight pressure of 3 to 4 in. water
gage. The material was charged into a cold furnace, raised to 1,652 deg.F.,
and maintained at that temperature for 8 hr. to give the necessary
depth of case. The work consisted of automobile gears packed in
six boxes, the total weight being 713 lb. The required temperature
of 1,652 deg.F. was obtained in 70 min. from lighting up, and a summary
of the data is shown in the following table:

Cubic Foot Total
Per Pound Number of
of Load Cubic Foot
Gas to raise furnace and charge from
cold to 1,652 deg.F., 70 min. 1.29 925
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 1st hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 2nd hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 3rd hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 4th hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 5th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 6th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 7th hour 0.45 325
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 8th hour 0.45 325

The overall gas consumption for this run of 9 hr. 10 min. was only
4.8 cu. ft. per pound of load.

Next: The Care Of Carburizing Compounds

Previous: A Satisfactory Luting Mixture

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