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Steel Making

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing


Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for carburizing
have been generally recognized in the past from points of view as
close temperature regulation, decreased attendance, and greater
convenience, very little information has been published regarding
the consumption of gas for this process. It has therefore been a
matter of great difficulty to obtain authentic information upon
this point, either from makers or users of such furnaces.

In view of this, the details of actual consumption of gas on a
regular customer's order job will be of interest. The Revergen
furnace, manufactured by the Davis Furnace Company, Luton, Bedford,
England, was used on this job, and is provided with regenerators
and fired with illuminating gas at ordinary pressure, the air being
introduced to the furnace at a slight pressure of 3 to 4 in. water
gage. The material was charged into a cold furnace, raised to 1,652 deg.F.,
and maintained at that temperature for 8 hr. to give the necessary
depth of case. The work consisted of automobile gears packed in
six boxes, the total weight being 713 lb. The required temperature
of 1,652 deg.F. was obtained in 70 min. from lighting up, and a summary
of the data is shown in the following table:

Cubic Foot Total
Per Pound Number of
of Load Cubic Foot
Gas to raise furnace and charge from
cold to 1,652 deg.F., 70 min. 1.29 925
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 1st hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 2nd hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 3rd hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 4th hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 5th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 6th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 7th hour 0.45 325
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 8th hour 0.45 325

The overall gas consumption for this run of 9 hr. 10 min. was only
4.8 cu. ft. per pound of load.

Next: The Care Of Carburizing Compounds

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