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Steel Making

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing


Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for carburizing
have been generally recognized in the past from points of view as
close temperature regulation, decreased attendance, and greater
convenience, very little information has been published regarding
the consumption of gas for this process. It has therefore been a
matter of great difficulty to obtain authentic information upon
this point, either from makers or users of such furnaces.

In view of this, the details of actual consumption of gas on a
regular customer's order job will be of interest. The Revergen
furnace, manufactured by the Davis Furnace Company, Luton, Bedford,
England, was used on this job, and is provided with regenerators
and fired with illuminating gas at ordinary pressure, the air being
introduced to the furnace at a slight pressure of 3 to 4 in. water
gage. The material was charged into a cold furnace, raised to 1,652 deg.F.,
and maintained at that temperature for 8 hr. to give the necessary
depth of case. The work consisted of automobile gears packed in
six boxes, the total weight being 713 lb. The required temperature
of 1,652 deg.F. was obtained in 70 min. from lighting up, and a summary
of the data is shown in the following table:

Cubic Foot Total
Per Pound Number of
of Load Cubic Foot
Gas to raise furnace and charge from
cold to 1,652 deg.F., 70 min. 1.29 925
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 1st hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 2nd hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 3rd hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 4th hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 5th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 6th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 7th hour 0.45 325
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 8th hour 0.45 325

The overall gas consumption for this run of 9 hr. 10 min. was only
4.8 cu. ft. per pound of load.

Next: The Care Of Carburizing Compounds

Previous: A Satisfactory Luting Mixture

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