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The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing


Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for carburizing
have been generally recognized in the past from points of view as
close temperature regulation, decreased attendance, and greater
convenience, very little information has been published regarding
the consumption of gas for this process. It has therefore been a
matter of great difficulty to obtain authentic information upon
this point, either from makers or users of such furnaces.

In view of this, the details of actual consumption of gas on a
regular customer's order job will be of interest. The Revergen
furnace, manufactured by the Davis Furnace Company, Luton, Bedford,
England, was used on this job, and is provided with regenerators
and fired with illuminating gas at ordinary pressure, the air being
introduced to the furnace at a slight pressure of 3 to 4 in. water
gage. The material was charged into a cold furnace, raised to 1,652 deg.F.,
and maintained at that temperature for 8 hr. to give the necessary
depth of case. The work consisted of automobile gears packed in
six boxes, the total weight being 713 lb. The required temperature
of 1,652 deg.F. was obtained in 70 min. from lighting up, and a summary
of the data is shown in the following table:

Cubic Foot Total
Per Pound Number of
of Load Cubic Foot
Gas to raise furnace and charge from
cold to 1,652 deg.F., 70 min. 1.29 925
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 1st hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 2nd hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 3rd hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 4th hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 5th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 6th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 7th hour 0.45 325
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 8th hour 0.45 325

The overall gas consumption for this run of 9 hr. 10 min. was only
4.8 cu. ft. per pound of load.

Next: The Care Of Carburizing Compounds

Previous: A Satisfactory Luting Mixture

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