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A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing


Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for carburizing
have been generally recognized in the past from points of view as
close temperature regulation, decreased attendance, and greater
convenience, very little information has been published regarding
the consumption of gas for this process. It has therefore been a
matter of great difficulty to obtain authentic information upon
this point, either from makers or users of such furnaces.

In view of this, the details of actual consumption of gas on a
regular customer's order job will be of interest. The Revergen
furnace, manufactured by the Davis Furnace Company, Luton, Bedford,
England, was used on this job, and is provided with regenerators
and fired with illuminating gas at ordinary pressure, the air being
introduced to the furnace at a slight pressure of 3 to 4 in. water
gage. The material was charged into a cold furnace, raised to 1,652 deg.F.,
and maintained at that temperature for 8 hr. to give the necessary
depth of case. The work consisted of automobile gears packed in
six boxes, the total weight being 713 lb. The required temperature
of 1,652 deg.F. was obtained in 70 min. from lighting up, and a summary
of the data is shown in the following table:

Cubic Foot Total
Per Pound Number of
of Load Cubic Foot
Gas to raise furnace and charge from
cold to 1,652 deg.F., 70 min. 1.29 925
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 1st hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 2nd hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 3rd hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 4th hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 5th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 6th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 7th hour 0.45 325
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 8th hour 0.45 325

The overall gas consumption for this run of 9 hr. 10 min. was only
4.8 cu. ft. per pound of load.

Next: The Care Of Carburizing Compounds

Previous: A Satisfactory Luting Mixture

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