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Steel Making

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing


Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for carburizing
have been generally recognized in the past from points of view as
close temperature regulation, decreased attendance, and greater
convenience, very little information has been published regarding
the consumption of gas for this process. It has therefore been a
matter of great difficulty to obtain authentic information upon
this point, either from makers or users of such furnaces.

In view of this, the details of actual consumption of gas on a
regular customer's order job will be of interest. The Revergen
furnace, manufactured by the Davis Furnace Company, Luton, Bedford,
England, was used on this job, and is provided with regenerators
and fired with illuminating gas at ordinary pressure, the air being
introduced to the furnace at a slight pressure of 3 to 4 in. water
gage. The material was charged into a cold furnace, raised to 1,652 deg.F.,
and maintained at that temperature for 8 hr. to give the necessary
depth of case. The work consisted of automobile gears packed in
six boxes, the total weight being 713 lb. The required temperature
of 1,652 deg.F. was obtained in 70 min. from lighting up, and a summary
of the data is shown in the following table:

Cubic Foot Total
Per Pound Number of
of Load Cubic Foot
Gas to raise furnace and charge from
cold to 1,652 deg.F., 70 min. 1.29 925
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 1st hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 2nd hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 3rd hour 0.38 275
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 4th hour 0.42 300
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 5th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 6th hour 0.49 350
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 7th hour 0.45 325
Gas to maintain 1,652 deg.F. for 8th hour 0.45 325

The overall gas consumption for this run of 9 hr. 10 min. was only
4.8 cu. ft. per pound of load.

Next: The Care Of Carburizing Compounds

Previous: A Satisfactory Luting Mixture

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