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Steel Making

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...



Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of steel
wanted for shop tools, he generally made his own designs, hardened,
tempered, ground and usually set up the machine where it was to
be used and tested it.

Most of us remember the toolmaker during the sewing machine period
when interchangeable tools were beginning to find their way; rather
cautiously at first. The bicycle era was the real beginning of
tool making from a manufacturing standpoint, when interchangeable
tools for rapid production were called for and toolmakers were in
great demand. Even then, jigs, and fixtures were of the toolmaker's
own design, who practically built every part of it from start to
finish.

The old way, however, had to be changed. Instead of the toolmaker
starting his work from cutting off the stock in the old hack saw,
a place for cutting off stock was provided. If, for instance, a
forming tool was wanted, the toolmaker was given the master tool
to make while an apprentice roughed out the cutter. The toolmaker,
however, reserved the hardening process for himself. That was one
of the particular operations that the old toolmaker refused to
give up. It seemed preposterous to think for a minute that any
one else could possibly do that particular job without spoiling
the tools, or at least warp it out of shape (most of us did not
grind holes in cutters 15 to 20 years ago); or a hundred or more
things might happen unless the toolmaker did his own hardening
and tempering.

That so many remarkably good tools were made at that time is still
a wonder to many, when we consider that the large shop had from 30
to 40 different men, all using their own secret compounds, heating
to suit eyesight, no matter if the day was bright or dark, and then
tempering to color. But the day of the old toolmaker has changed.
Now a tool is designed by a tool designer, O.K.'d, and then a print
goes to the foreman of the tool department, who specifies the size
and gets the steel from the cutting-off department. After finishing
the machine work it goes to the hardening room, and this is the
problem we shall now take up in detail.





Next: The Modern Hardening Room

Previous: Restoring Overheated Steel



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