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Steel Making

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...



Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of steel
wanted for shop tools, he generally made his own designs, hardened,
tempered, ground and usually set up the machine where it was to
be used and tested it.

Most of us remember the toolmaker during the sewing machine period
when interchangeable tools were beginning to find their way; rather
cautiously at first. The bicycle era was the real beginning of
tool making from a manufacturing standpoint, when interchangeable
tools for rapid production were called for and toolmakers were in
great demand. Even then, jigs, and fixtures were of the toolmaker's
own design, who practically built every part of it from start to
finish.

The old way, however, had to be changed. Instead of the toolmaker
starting his work from cutting off the stock in the old hack saw,
a place for cutting off stock was provided. If, for instance, a
forming tool was wanted, the toolmaker was given the master tool
to make while an apprentice roughed out the cutter. The toolmaker,
however, reserved the hardening process for himself. That was one
of the particular operations that the old toolmaker refused to
give up. It seemed preposterous to think for a minute that any
one else could possibly do that particular job without spoiling
the tools, or at least warp it out of shape (most of us did not
grind holes in cutters 15 to 20 years ago); or a hundred or more
things might happen unless the toolmaker did his own hardening
and tempering.

That so many remarkably good tools were made at that time is still
a wonder to many, when we consider that the large shop had from 30
to 40 different men, all using their own secret compounds, heating
to suit eyesight, no matter if the day was bright or dark, and then
tempering to color. But the day of the old toolmaker has changed.
Now a tool is designed by a tool designer, O.K.'d, and then a print
goes to the foreman of the tool department, who specifies the size
and gets the steel from the cutting-off department. After finishing
the machine work it goes to the hardening room, and this is the
problem we shall now take up in detail.





Next: The Modern Hardening Room

Previous: Restoring Overheated Steel



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