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Steel Making

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...



Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of steel
wanted for shop tools, he generally made his own designs, hardened,
tempered, ground and usually set up the machine where it was to
be used and tested it.

Most of us remember the toolmaker during the sewing machine period
when interchangeable tools were beginning to find their way; rather
cautiously at first. The bicycle era was the real beginning of
tool making from a manufacturing standpoint, when interchangeable
tools for rapid production were called for and toolmakers were in
great demand. Even then, jigs, and fixtures were of the toolmaker's
own design, who practically built every part of it from start to
finish.

The old way, however, had to be changed. Instead of the toolmaker
starting his work from cutting off the stock in the old hack saw,
a place for cutting off stock was provided. If, for instance, a
forming tool was wanted, the toolmaker was given the master tool
to make while an apprentice roughed out the cutter. The toolmaker,
however, reserved the hardening process for himself. That was one
of the particular operations that the old toolmaker refused to
give up. It seemed preposterous to think for a minute that any
one else could possibly do that particular job without spoiling
the tools, or at least warp it out of shape (most of us did not
grind holes in cutters 15 to 20 years ago); or a hundred or more
things might happen unless the toolmaker did his own hardening
and tempering.

That so many remarkably good tools were made at that time is still
a wonder to many, when we consider that the large shop had from 30
to 40 different men, all using their own secret compounds, heating
to suit eyesight, no matter if the day was bright or dark, and then
tempering to color. But the day of the old toolmaker has changed.
Now a tool is designed by a tool designer, O.K.'d, and then a print
goes to the foreman of the tool department, who specifies the size
and gets the steel from the cutting-off department. After finishing
the machine work it goes to the hardening room, and this is the
problem we shall now take up in detail.





Next: The Modern Hardening Room

Previous: Restoring Overheated Steel



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