BY GEORGE L. RUFFIN GEORGE L. RUFFIN (1834-1885) the first Negro judge to be appointed in Massachusetts, graduated in Law from Harvard, 1869. He served in the legislature of Massachusetts two terms, and in the Boston Council two terms. [N... Read more of Crispus Attucks at Martin Luther King.caInformational Site Network Informational
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Steel Making

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...



Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of steel
wanted for shop tools, he generally made his own designs, hardened,
tempered, ground and usually set up the machine where it was to
be used and tested it.

Most of us remember the toolmaker during the sewing machine period
when interchangeable tools were beginning to find their way; rather
cautiously at first. The bicycle era was the real beginning of
tool making from a manufacturing standpoint, when interchangeable
tools for rapid production were called for and toolmakers were in
great demand. Even then, jigs, and fixtures were of the toolmaker's
own design, who practically built every part of it from start to
finish.

The old way, however, had to be changed. Instead of the toolmaker
starting his work from cutting off the stock in the old hack saw,
a place for cutting off stock was provided. If, for instance, a
forming tool was wanted, the toolmaker was given the master tool
to make while an apprentice roughed out the cutter. The toolmaker,
however, reserved the hardening process for himself. That was one
of the particular operations that the old toolmaker refused to
give up. It seemed preposterous to think for a minute that any
one else could possibly do that particular job without spoiling
the tools, or at least warp it out of shape (most of us did not
grind holes in cutters 15 to 20 years ago); or a hundred or more
things might happen unless the toolmaker did his own hardening
and tempering.

That so many remarkably good tools were made at that time is still
a wonder to many, when we consider that the large shop had from 30
to 40 different men, all using their own secret compounds, heating
to suit eyesight, no matter if the day was bright or dark, and then
tempering to color. But the day of the old toolmaker has changed.
Now a tool is designed by a tool designer, O.K.'d, and then a print
goes to the foreman of the tool department, who specifies the size
and gets the steel from the cutting-off department. After finishing
the machine work it goes to the hardening room, and this is the
problem we shall now take up in detail.





Next: The Modern Hardening Room

Previous: Restoring Overheated Steel



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