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Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools


For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of steel
wanted for shop tools, he generally made his own designs, hardened,
tempered, ground and usually set up the machine where it was to
be used and tested it.

Most of us remember the toolmaker during the sewing machine period
when interchangeable tools were beginning to find their way; rather
cautiously at first. The bicycle era was the real beginning of
tool making from a manufacturing standpoint, when interchangeable
tools for rapid production were called for and toolmakers were in
great demand. Even then, jigs, and fixtures were of the toolmaker's
own design, who practically built every part of it from start to

The old way, however, had to be changed. Instead of the toolmaker
starting his work from cutting off the stock in the old hack saw,
a place for cutting off stock was provided. If, for instance, a
forming tool was wanted, the toolmaker was given the master tool
to make while an apprentice roughed out the cutter. The toolmaker,
however, reserved the hardening process for himself. That was one
of the particular operations that the old toolmaker refused to
give up. It seemed preposterous to think for a minute that any
one else could possibly do that particular job without spoiling
the tools, or at least warp it out of shape (most of us did not
grind holes in cutters 15 to 20 years ago); or a hundred or more
things might happen unless the toolmaker did his own hardening
and tempering.

That so many remarkably good tools were made at that time is still
a wonder to many, when we consider that the large shop had from 30
to 40 different men, all using their own secret compounds, heating
to suit eyesight, no matter if the day was bright or dark, and then
tempering to color. But the day of the old toolmaker has changed.
Now a tool is designed by a tool designer, O.K.'d, and then a print
goes to the foreman of the tool department, who specifies the size
and gets the steel from the cutting-off department. After finishing
the machine work it goes to the hardening room, and this is the
problem we shall now take up in detail.

Next: The Modern Hardening Room

Previous: Restoring Overheated Steel

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