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Steel Making

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools


For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of steel
wanted for shop tools, he generally made his own designs, hardened,
tempered, ground and usually set up the machine where it was to
be used and tested it.

Most of us remember the toolmaker during the sewing machine period
when interchangeable tools were beginning to find their way; rather
cautiously at first. The bicycle era was the real beginning of
tool making from a manufacturing standpoint, when interchangeable
tools for rapid production were called for and toolmakers were in
great demand. Even then, jigs, and fixtures were of the toolmaker's
own design, who practically built every part of it from start to

The old way, however, had to be changed. Instead of the toolmaker
starting his work from cutting off the stock in the old hack saw,
a place for cutting off stock was provided. If, for instance, a
forming tool was wanted, the toolmaker was given the master tool
to make while an apprentice roughed out the cutter. The toolmaker,
however, reserved the hardening process for himself. That was one
of the particular operations that the old toolmaker refused to
give up. It seemed preposterous to think for a minute that any
one else could possibly do that particular job without spoiling
the tools, or at least warp it out of shape (most of us did not
grind holes in cutters 15 to 20 years ago); or a hundred or more
things might happen unless the toolmaker did his own hardening
and tempering.

That so many remarkably good tools were made at that time is still
a wonder to many, when we consider that the large shop had from 30
to 40 different men, all using their own secret compounds, heating
to suit eyesight, no matter if the day was bright or dark, and then
tempering to color. But the day of the old toolmaker has changed.
Now a tool is designed by a tool designer, O.K.'d, and then a print
goes to the foreman of the tool department, who specifies the size
and gets the steel from the cutting-off department. After finishing
the machine work it goes to the hardening room, and this is the
problem we shall now take up in detail.

Next: The Modern Hardening Room

Previous: Restoring Overheated Steel

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