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Steel Making

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...



Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of steel
wanted for shop tools, he generally made his own designs, hardened,
tempered, ground and usually set up the machine where it was to
be used and tested it.

Most of us remember the toolmaker during the sewing machine period
when interchangeable tools were beginning to find their way; rather
cautiously at first. The bicycle era was the real beginning of
tool making from a manufacturing standpoint, when interchangeable
tools for rapid production were called for and toolmakers were in
great demand. Even then, jigs, and fixtures were of the toolmaker's
own design, who practically built every part of it from start to
finish.

The old way, however, had to be changed. Instead of the toolmaker
starting his work from cutting off the stock in the old hack saw,
a place for cutting off stock was provided. If, for instance, a
forming tool was wanted, the toolmaker was given the master tool
to make while an apprentice roughed out the cutter. The toolmaker,
however, reserved the hardening process for himself. That was one
of the particular operations that the old toolmaker refused to
give up. It seemed preposterous to think for a minute that any
one else could possibly do that particular job without spoiling
the tools, or at least warp it out of shape (most of us did not
grind holes in cutters 15 to 20 years ago); or a hundred or more
things might happen unless the toolmaker did his own hardening
and tempering.

That so many remarkably good tools were made at that time is still
a wonder to many, when we consider that the large shop had from 30
to 40 different men, all using their own secret compounds, heating
to suit eyesight, no matter if the day was bright or dark, and then
tempering to color. But the day of the old toolmaker has changed.
Now a tool is designed by a tool designer, O.K.'d, and then a print
goes to the foreman of the tool department, who specifies the size
and gets the steel from the cutting-off department. After finishing
the machine work it goes to the hardening room, and this is the
problem we shall now take up in detail.





Next: The Modern Hardening Room

Previous: Restoring Overheated Steel



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