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Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...



Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of steel
wanted for shop tools, he generally made his own designs, hardened,
tempered, ground and usually set up the machine where it was to
be used and tested it.

Most of us remember the toolmaker during the sewing machine period
when interchangeable tools were beginning to find their way; rather
cautiously at first. The bicycle era was the real beginning of
tool making from a manufacturing standpoint, when interchangeable
tools for rapid production were called for and toolmakers were in
great demand. Even then, jigs, and fixtures were of the toolmaker's
own design, who practically built every part of it from start to
finish.

The old way, however, had to be changed. Instead of the toolmaker
starting his work from cutting off the stock in the old hack saw,
a place for cutting off stock was provided. If, for instance, a
forming tool was wanted, the toolmaker was given the master tool
to make while an apprentice roughed out the cutter. The toolmaker,
however, reserved the hardening process for himself. That was one
of the particular operations that the old toolmaker refused to
give up. It seemed preposterous to think for a minute that any
one else could possibly do that particular job without spoiling
the tools, or at least warp it out of shape (most of us did not
grind holes in cutters 15 to 20 years ago); or a hundred or more
things might happen unless the toolmaker did his own hardening
and tempering.

That so many remarkably good tools were made at that time is still
a wonder to many, when we consider that the large shop had from 30
to 40 different men, all using their own secret compounds, heating
to suit eyesight, no matter if the day was bright or dark, and then
tempering to color. But the day of the old toolmaker has changed.
Now a tool is designed by a tool designer, O.K.'d, and then a print
goes to the foreman of the tool department, who specifies the size
and gets the steel from the cutting-off department. After finishing
the machine work it goes to the hardening room, and this is the
problem we shall now take up in detail.





Next: The Modern Hardening Room

Previous: Restoring Overheated Steel



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