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Steel Making

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...



Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of steel
wanted for shop tools, he generally made his own designs, hardened,
tempered, ground and usually set up the machine where it was to
be used and tested it.

Most of us remember the toolmaker during the sewing machine period
when interchangeable tools were beginning to find their way; rather
cautiously at first. The bicycle era was the real beginning of
tool making from a manufacturing standpoint, when interchangeable
tools for rapid production were called for and toolmakers were in
great demand. Even then, jigs, and fixtures were of the toolmaker's
own design, who practically built every part of it from start to
finish.

The old way, however, had to be changed. Instead of the toolmaker
starting his work from cutting off the stock in the old hack saw,
a place for cutting off stock was provided. If, for instance, a
forming tool was wanted, the toolmaker was given the master tool
to make while an apprentice roughed out the cutter. The toolmaker,
however, reserved the hardening process for himself. That was one
of the particular operations that the old toolmaker refused to
give up. It seemed preposterous to think for a minute that any
one else could possibly do that particular job without spoiling
the tools, or at least warp it out of shape (most of us did not
grind holes in cutters 15 to 20 years ago); or a hundred or more
things might happen unless the toolmaker did his own hardening
and tempering.

That so many remarkably good tools were made at that time is still
a wonder to many, when we consider that the large shop had from 30
to 40 different men, all using their own secret compounds, heating
to suit eyesight, no matter if the day was bright or dark, and then
tempering to color. But the day of the old toolmaker has changed.
Now a tool is designed by a tool designer, O.K.'d, and then a print
goes to the foreman of the tool department, who specifies the size
and gets the steel from the cutting-off department. After finishing
the machine work it goes to the hardening room, and this is the
problem we shall now take up in detail.





Next: The Modern Hardening Room

Previous: Restoring Overheated Steel



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