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Steel Making

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...



Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of steel
wanted for shop tools, he generally made his own designs, hardened,
tempered, ground and usually set up the machine where it was to
be used and tested it.

Most of us remember the toolmaker during the sewing machine period
when interchangeable tools were beginning to find their way; rather
cautiously at first. The bicycle era was the real beginning of
tool making from a manufacturing standpoint, when interchangeable
tools for rapid production were called for and toolmakers were in
great demand. Even then, jigs, and fixtures were of the toolmaker's
own design, who practically built every part of it from start to
finish.

The old way, however, had to be changed. Instead of the toolmaker
starting his work from cutting off the stock in the old hack saw,
a place for cutting off stock was provided. If, for instance, a
forming tool was wanted, the toolmaker was given the master tool
to make while an apprentice roughed out the cutter. The toolmaker,
however, reserved the hardening process for himself. That was one
of the particular operations that the old toolmaker refused to
give up. It seemed preposterous to think for a minute that any
one else could possibly do that particular job without spoiling
the tools, or at least warp it out of shape (most of us did not
grind holes in cutters 15 to 20 years ago); or a hundred or more
things might happen unless the toolmaker did his own hardening
and tempering.

That so many remarkably good tools were made at that time is still
a wonder to many, when we consider that the large shop had from 30
to 40 different men, all using their own secret compounds, heating
to suit eyesight, no matter if the day was bright or dark, and then
tempering to color. But the day of the old toolmaker has changed.
Now a tool is designed by a tool designer, O.K.'d, and then a print
goes to the foreman of the tool department, who specifies the size
and gets the steel from the cutting-off department. After finishing
the machine work it goes to the hardening room, and this is the
problem we shall now take up in detail.





Next: The Modern Hardening Room

Previous: Restoring Overheated Steel



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