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High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...



Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of steel
wanted for shop tools, he generally made his own designs, hardened,
tempered, ground and usually set up the machine where it was to
be used and tested it.

Most of us remember the toolmaker during the sewing machine period
when interchangeable tools were beginning to find their way; rather
cautiously at first. The bicycle era was the real beginning of
tool making from a manufacturing standpoint, when interchangeable
tools for rapid production were called for and toolmakers were in
great demand. Even then, jigs, and fixtures were of the toolmaker's
own design, who practically built every part of it from start to
finish.

The old way, however, had to be changed. Instead of the toolmaker
starting his work from cutting off the stock in the old hack saw,
a place for cutting off stock was provided. If, for instance, a
forming tool was wanted, the toolmaker was given the master tool
to make while an apprentice roughed out the cutter. The toolmaker,
however, reserved the hardening process for himself. That was one
of the particular operations that the old toolmaker refused to
give up. It seemed preposterous to think for a minute that any
one else could possibly do that particular job without spoiling
the tools, or at least warp it out of shape (most of us did not
grind holes in cutters 15 to 20 years ago); or a hundred or more
things might happen unless the toolmaker did his own hardening
and tempering.

That so many remarkably good tools were made at that time is still
a wonder to many, when we consider that the large shop had from 30
to 40 different men, all using their own secret compounds, heating
to suit eyesight, no matter if the day was bright or dark, and then
tempering to color. But the day of the old toolmaker has changed.
Now a tool is designed by a tool designer, O.K.'d, and then a print
goes to the foreman of the tool department, who specifies the size
and gets the steel from the cutting-off department. After finishing
the machine work it goes to the hardening room, and this is the
problem we shall now take up in detail.





Next: The Modern Hardening Room

Previous: Restoring Overheated Steel



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