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Steel Making

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...



Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of steel
wanted for shop tools, he generally made his own designs, hardened,
tempered, ground and usually set up the machine where it was to
be used and tested it.

Most of us remember the toolmaker during the sewing machine period
when interchangeable tools were beginning to find their way; rather
cautiously at first. The bicycle era was the real beginning of
tool making from a manufacturing standpoint, when interchangeable
tools for rapid production were called for and toolmakers were in
great demand. Even then, jigs, and fixtures were of the toolmaker's
own design, who practically built every part of it from start to
finish.

The old way, however, had to be changed. Instead of the toolmaker
starting his work from cutting off the stock in the old hack saw,
a place for cutting off stock was provided. If, for instance, a
forming tool was wanted, the toolmaker was given the master tool
to make while an apprentice roughed out the cutter. The toolmaker,
however, reserved the hardening process for himself. That was one
of the particular operations that the old toolmaker refused to
give up. It seemed preposterous to think for a minute that any
one else could possibly do that particular job without spoiling
the tools, or at least warp it out of shape (most of us did not
grind holes in cutters 15 to 20 years ago); or a hundred or more
things might happen unless the toolmaker did his own hardening
and tempering.

That so many remarkably good tools were made at that time is still
a wonder to many, when we consider that the large shop had from 30
to 40 different men, all using their own secret compounds, heating
to suit eyesight, no matter if the day was bright or dark, and then
tempering to color. But the day of the old toolmaker has changed.
Now a tool is designed by a tool designer, O.K.'d, and then a print
goes to the foreman of the tool department, who specifies the size
and gets the steel from the cutting-off department. After finishing
the machine work it goes to the hardening room, and this is the
problem we shall now take up in detail.





Next: The Modern Hardening Room

Previous: Restoring Overheated Steel



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