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Steel Making

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...



Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of steel
wanted for shop tools, he generally made his own designs, hardened,
tempered, ground and usually set up the machine where it was to
be used and tested it.

Most of us remember the toolmaker during the sewing machine period
when interchangeable tools were beginning to find their way; rather
cautiously at first. The bicycle era was the real beginning of
tool making from a manufacturing standpoint, when interchangeable
tools for rapid production were called for and toolmakers were in
great demand. Even then, jigs, and fixtures were of the toolmaker's
own design, who practically built every part of it from start to
finish.

The old way, however, had to be changed. Instead of the toolmaker
starting his work from cutting off the stock in the old hack saw,
a place for cutting off stock was provided. If, for instance, a
forming tool was wanted, the toolmaker was given the master tool
to make while an apprentice roughed out the cutter. The toolmaker,
however, reserved the hardening process for himself. That was one
of the particular operations that the old toolmaker refused to
give up. It seemed preposterous to think for a minute that any
one else could possibly do that particular job without spoiling
the tools, or at least warp it out of shape (most of us did not
grind holes in cutters 15 to 20 years ago); or a hundred or more
things might happen unless the toolmaker did his own hardening
and tempering.

That so many remarkably good tools were made at that time is still
a wonder to many, when we consider that the large shop had from 30
to 40 different men, all using their own secret compounds, heating
to suit eyesight, no matter if the day was bright or dark, and then
tempering to color. But the day of the old toolmaker has changed.
Now a tool is designed by a tool designer, O.K.'d, and then a print
goes to the foreman of the tool department, who specifies the size
and gets the steel from the cutting-off department. After finishing
the machine work it goes to the hardening room, and this is the
problem we shall now take up in detail.





Next: The Modern Hardening Room

Previous: Restoring Overheated Steel



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