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Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...



Corrosion






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold
working is more sensitive to corrosion and will rust. Rough cut
surfaces will rust. Surfaces finished with a fine cut are less
liable to rust. Ground and polished surfaces are practically immune
to rust.

When chromium content is increased to 16 to 18 per cent and silicon
is added, from 2 to 4 per cent, this steel becomes rust proof in
its raw state, as soon as the outside surface is removed. It does
not need to be heat-treated in any way. These compositions are
both patented.

S. A. E. STANDARD STEELS

The following steel specifications are considered standard by the
Society of Automotive Engineers and represents automobile practice in
this country. These tables give the S. A. E. number, the composition
of the steel and the heat treatment. These are referred to by
letter--the heat treatments being given in detail on pages 134
to 137 in Chap. 8. It should be noted that the percentage of the
different ingredients desired is the mean, or halfway between the
minimum and maximum.

TABLE 4.--CARBON STEELS
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E. Carbon Manganese
Specification(minimum and (minimum and Phosphorus Sulphur Heat
no. maximum) maximum) (maximum) (maximum) treatment
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1,010 0.05 to 0.15 0.30 to 0.60 0.045 0.05 Quench at 1,500
1,020 0.15 to 0.25 0.30 to 0.60 0.045 0.05 A or B
1,025 0.20 to 0.30 0.50 to 0.80 0.045 0.05 H

1,035 0.30 to 0.40 0.50 to 0.80 0.045 0.05 H, D or E
1,045 0.40 to 0.50 0.50 to 0.80 0.045 0.05 H, D or E
1,095 0.90 to 1.05 0.25 to 0.50 0.040 0.05 F
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 5.--SCREW STOCK
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E. Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulphur
Specification no. (maximum)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1,114 0.08 to 0.20 0.30 to 0.80 0.12 0.06 to 0.12
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 6.--NICKEL STEELS
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E. Phosphorus
Specification (maximum)
no. ---- /
Carbon Manganese Sulphur Nickel Heat
(minimum and(minimum and (maximum)(minimum andtreatment
maximum) maximum) maximum)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2,315 0.10 to 0.200.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75G, H or K
2,320 0.15 to 0.250.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75G, H or K
2,330 0.25 to 0.350.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K

2,335 0.30 to 0.400.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K
2,340 0.35 to 0.450.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K
2,345 0.40 to 0.500.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 7.--NICKEL-CHROMIUM STEELS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E. Phosphorus Sulphur
Specification (maximum)(maximum) Heat
no. ------ ------ ---- treatment
Carbon Manganese Nickel Chromium
(minimum and(minimum and (minimum and(minimum and
maximum) maximum) maximum) maximum)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3,1200.15 to 0.250.50 to 0.800.040.0451.00 to 1.500.45 to 0.75*G,H or D
3,1250.20 to 0.300.50 to 0.800.040.0451.00 to 1.500.45 to 0.75*H,D or E
3,1300.25 to 0.350.50 to 0.800.040.0451.00 to 1.500.45 to 0.75*H,D or E

3,1350.30 to 0.400.50 to 0 800.040.0451.00 to 1.500.45 to 0 75*H,D or E
3,1400.35 to 0.450.50 to 0.800.040.0451.00 to 1.500.45 to 0.75*H,D or E
3,2200.15 to 0.250.30 to 0.600.040.0401.50 to 2.000.90 to 1.25 G,H or D

3,2300.25 to 0.350.30 to 0.600.040.0401.50 to 2.000.90 to 1.25 H or D
3,2400.35 to 0.450.30 to 0.600.040.0401.50 to 2.000.90 to 1.25 H or D
3,2500.45 to 0.550.30 to 0.600.040.0401.50 to 2.000.90 to 1.25 M or Q

X3,3150.10 to 0.200.45 to 0.750.040.0402.75 to 3.250.60 to 0.95 G
X3,3350.30 to 0.400.45 to 0.750.040.0402.75 to 3.250.60 to 0.95 P or R
X3,3500.45 to 0.550.45 to 0.750.040.0402.75 to 3.250.60 to 0.95 P or R

3,3200.15 to 0.250.30 to 0.600.040.0403.25 to 3.751.25 to 1.75 L
3,3300.25 to 0.350.30 to 0.600.040.0403.25 to 3.751.25 to 1.75 P or R
3,3400.35 to 0.450.30 to 0.600.040.0403.25 to 3.751.25 to 1.75 P or R
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Another grade of this type of steel is available with chromium content
of 0.15 per cent to 45 per cent. It has somewhat lower physical properties.

TABLE 8.--CHROMIUM STEELS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E.
Specification
no. --- Carbon Manganese Chromium
(minimum and(minimum andPhosphorusSulphur (minimum and Heat
maximum) maximum) (maximum) (maximum) maximum) treatment
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
5,120 0.15 to 0.25 * 0.04 0.045 0.65 to 0.85 B
5,140 0.35 to 0.45 * 0.04 0.045 0.65 to 0.85 H or D
5,165 0.60 to 0.70 * 0.04 0.045 0.65 to 0.85 H or D

5,195 0.90 to 1.050.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 0.90 to 1.10M, P or R
51,120 1.10 to 1.300.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 0.90 to 1.10M, P or R
5,295 0.90 to 1.050.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 1.10 to 1.30M, P or R
52,120 1.10 to 1.300.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 1.10 to 1.30M, P or R
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Two types of steel are available in this class, one with manganese 0.25
to 0.50 per cent (0.35 per cent desired), and silicon not over 0.20 per
cent; the other with manganese 0.60 to 0.80 per cent (0.70 per cent
desired), and silicon 0.15 to 0.50 per cent.

TABLE 9.--CHROMIUM-VANADIUM STEELS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E. Phosphorus Sulphur Vanadium
Specification (maximum)(maximum) (minimum)
no. ------ -- / -
Carbon Manganese Chromium Heat
(minimum and(minimum and (minimum and treatment
maximum) maximum) maximum)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6,120 0.15 to 0.250.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 S
6,125 0.20 to 0.300.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 S or T
6,130 0.25 to 0.350.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 T or U
6,135 0.30 to 0.400.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 T or U
6,140 0.35 to 0.450.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 T or U
6,145 0.40 to 0.500.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 U
6,150 0.45 to 0.550.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 U
6,195 0.90 to 1.050.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 U
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 10.--SILICO-MANGANESE STEELS
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E.
Specification
no. ----- Carbon Manganese Silicon
(minimum and(minimum andPhosphorusSulphur (minimum and Heat
maximum) maximum) (maximum) (maximum) maximum) treatment
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
9,250 0.45 to 0.550.60 to 0.80 0.045* 0.045 1.80 to 2.10 V
9,260 0.55 to 0.650.50 to 0.70 0.045* 0.045 1.50 to 1.80 V
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Steel made by the acid process may contain maximum 0.05 phosphorus.





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