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Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...



Corrosion






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold
working is more sensitive to corrosion and will rust. Rough cut
surfaces will rust. Surfaces finished with a fine cut are less
liable to rust. Ground and polished surfaces are practically immune
to rust.

When chromium content is increased to 16 to 18 per cent and silicon
is added, from 2 to 4 per cent, this steel becomes rust proof in
its raw state, as soon as the outside surface is removed. It does
not need to be heat-treated in any way. These compositions are
both patented.

S. A. E. STANDARD STEELS

The following steel specifications are considered standard by the
Society of Automotive Engineers and represents automobile practice in
this country. These tables give the S. A. E. number, the composition
of the steel and the heat treatment. These are referred to by
letter--the heat treatments being given in detail on pages 134
to 137 in Chap. 8. It should be noted that the percentage of the
different ingredients desired is the mean, or halfway between the
minimum and maximum.

TABLE 4.--CARBON STEELS
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E. Carbon Manganese
Specification(minimum and (minimum and Phosphorus Sulphur Heat
no. maximum) maximum) (maximum) (maximum) treatment
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1,010 0.05 to 0.15 0.30 to 0.60 0.045 0.05 Quench at 1,500
1,020 0.15 to 0.25 0.30 to 0.60 0.045 0.05 A or B
1,025 0.20 to 0.30 0.50 to 0.80 0.045 0.05 H

1,035 0.30 to 0.40 0.50 to 0.80 0.045 0.05 H, D or E
1,045 0.40 to 0.50 0.50 to 0.80 0.045 0.05 H, D or E
1,095 0.90 to 1.05 0.25 to 0.50 0.040 0.05 F
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 5.--SCREW STOCK
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E. Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulphur
Specification no. (maximum)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1,114 0.08 to 0.20 0.30 to 0.80 0.12 0.06 to 0.12
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 6.--NICKEL STEELS
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E. Phosphorus
Specification (maximum)
no. ---- /
Carbon Manganese Sulphur Nickel Heat
(minimum and(minimum and (maximum)(minimum andtreatment
maximum) maximum) maximum)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2,315 0.10 to 0.200.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75G, H or K
2,320 0.15 to 0.250.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75G, H or K
2,330 0.25 to 0.350.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K

2,335 0.30 to 0.400.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K
2,340 0.35 to 0.450.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K
2,345 0.40 to 0.500.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 7.--NICKEL-CHROMIUM STEELS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E. Phosphorus Sulphur
Specification (maximum)(maximum) Heat
no. ------ ------ ---- treatment
Carbon Manganese Nickel Chromium
(minimum and(minimum and (minimum and(minimum and
maximum) maximum) maximum) maximum)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3,1200.15 to 0.250.50 to 0.800.040.0451.00 to 1.500.45 to 0.75*G,H or D
3,1250.20 to 0.300.50 to 0.800.040.0451.00 to 1.500.45 to 0.75*H,D or E
3,1300.25 to 0.350.50 to 0.800.040.0451.00 to 1.500.45 to 0.75*H,D or E

3,1350.30 to 0.400.50 to 0 800.040.0451.00 to 1.500.45 to 0 75*H,D or E
3,1400.35 to 0.450.50 to 0.800.040.0451.00 to 1.500.45 to 0.75*H,D or E
3,2200.15 to 0.250.30 to 0.600.040.0401.50 to 2.000.90 to 1.25 G,H or D

3,2300.25 to 0.350.30 to 0.600.040.0401.50 to 2.000.90 to 1.25 H or D
3,2400.35 to 0.450.30 to 0.600.040.0401.50 to 2.000.90 to 1.25 H or D
3,2500.45 to 0.550.30 to 0.600.040.0401.50 to 2.000.90 to 1.25 M or Q

X3,3150.10 to 0.200.45 to 0.750.040.0402.75 to 3.250.60 to 0.95 G
X3,3350.30 to 0.400.45 to 0.750.040.0402.75 to 3.250.60 to 0.95 P or R
X3,3500.45 to 0.550.45 to 0.750.040.0402.75 to 3.250.60 to 0.95 P or R

3,3200.15 to 0.250.30 to 0.600.040.0403.25 to 3.751.25 to 1.75 L
3,3300.25 to 0.350.30 to 0.600.040.0403.25 to 3.751.25 to 1.75 P or R
3,3400.35 to 0.450.30 to 0.600.040.0403.25 to 3.751.25 to 1.75 P or R
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Another grade of this type of steel is available with chromium content
of 0.15 per cent to 45 per cent. It has somewhat lower physical properties.

TABLE 8.--CHROMIUM STEELS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E.
Specification
no. --- Carbon Manganese Chromium
(minimum and(minimum andPhosphorusSulphur (minimum and Heat
maximum) maximum) (maximum) (maximum) maximum) treatment
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
5,120 0.15 to 0.25 * 0.04 0.045 0.65 to 0.85 B
5,140 0.35 to 0.45 * 0.04 0.045 0.65 to 0.85 H or D
5,165 0.60 to 0.70 * 0.04 0.045 0.65 to 0.85 H or D

5,195 0.90 to 1.050.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 0.90 to 1.10M, P or R
51,120 1.10 to 1.300.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 0.90 to 1.10M, P or R
5,295 0.90 to 1.050.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 1.10 to 1.30M, P or R
52,120 1.10 to 1.300.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 1.10 to 1.30M, P or R
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Two types of steel are available in this class, one with manganese 0.25
to 0.50 per cent (0.35 per cent desired), and silicon not over 0.20 per
cent; the other with manganese 0.60 to 0.80 per cent (0.70 per cent
desired), and silicon 0.15 to 0.50 per cent.

TABLE 9.--CHROMIUM-VANADIUM STEELS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E. Phosphorus Sulphur Vanadium
Specification (maximum)(maximum) (minimum)
no. ------ -- / -
Carbon Manganese Chromium Heat
(minimum and(minimum and (minimum and treatment
maximum) maximum) maximum)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6,120 0.15 to 0.250.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 S
6,125 0.20 to 0.300.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 S or T
6,130 0.25 to 0.350.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 T or U
6,135 0.30 to 0.400.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 T or U
6,140 0.35 to 0.450.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 T or U
6,145 0.40 to 0.500.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 U
6,150 0.45 to 0.550.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 U
6,195 0.90 to 1.050.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 U
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 10.--SILICO-MANGANESE STEELS
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E.
Specification
no. ----- Carbon Manganese Silicon
(minimum and(minimum andPhosphorusSulphur (minimum and Heat
maximum) maximum) (maximum) (maximum) maximum) treatment
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
9,250 0.45 to 0.550.60 to 0.80 0.045* 0.045 1.80 to 2.10 V
9,260 0.55 to 0.650.50 to 0.70 0.045* 0.045 1.50 to 1.80 V
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Steel made by the acid process may contain maximum 0.05 phosphorus.





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