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Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...



Corrosion






Category: ALLOYS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON STEEL

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold
working is more sensitive to corrosion and will rust. Rough cut
surfaces will rust. Surfaces finished with a fine cut are less
liable to rust. Ground and polished surfaces are practically immune
to rust.

When chromium content is increased to 16 to 18 per cent and silicon
is added, from 2 to 4 per cent, this steel becomes rust proof in
its raw state, as soon as the outside surface is removed. It does
not need to be heat-treated in any way. These compositions are
both patented.

S. A. E. STANDARD STEELS

The following steel specifications are considered standard by the
Society of Automotive Engineers and represents automobile practice in
this country. These tables give the S. A. E. number, the composition
of the steel and the heat treatment. These are referred to by
letter--the heat treatments being given in detail on pages 134
to 137 in Chap. 8. It should be noted that the percentage of the
different ingredients desired is the mean, or halfway between the
minimum and maximum.

TABLE 4.--CARBON STEELS
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E. Carbon Manganese
Specification(minimum and (minimum and Phosphorus Sulphur Heat
no. maximum) maximum) (maximum) (maximum) treatment
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1,010 0.05 to 0.15 0.30 to 0.60 0.045 0.05 Quench at 1,500
1,020 0.15 to 0.25 0.30 to 0.60 0.045 0.05 A or B
1,025 0.20 to 0.30 0.50 to 0.80 0.045 0.05 H

1,035 0.30 to 0.40 0.50 to 0.80 0.045 0.05 H, D or E
1,045 0.40 to 0.50 0.50 to 0.80 0.045 0.05 H, D or E
1,095 0.90 to 1.05 0.25 to 0.50 0.040 0.05 F
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 5.--SCREW STOCK
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E. Carbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulphur
Specification no. (maximum)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1,114 0.08 to 0.20 0.30 to 0.80 0.12 0.06 to 0.12
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 6.--NICKEL STEELS
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E. Phosphorus
Specification (maximum)
no. ---- /
Carbon Manganese Sulphur Nickel Heat
(minimum and(minimum and (maximum)(minimum andtreatment
maximum) maximum) maximum)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2,315 0.10 to 0.200.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75G, H or K
2,320 0.15 to 0.250.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75G, H or K
2,330 0.25 to 0.350.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K

2,335 0.30 to 0.400.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K
2,340 0.35 to 0.450.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K
2,345 0.40 to 0.500.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 7.--NICKEL-CHROMIUM STEELS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E. Phosphorus Sulphur
Specification (maximum)(maximum) Heat
no. ------ ------ ---- treatment
Carbon Manganese Nickel Chromium
(minimum and(minimum and (minimum and(minimum and
maximum) maximum) maximum) maximum)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3,1200.15 to 0.250.50 to 0.800.040.0451.00 to 1.500.45 to 0.75*G,H or D
3,1250.20 to 0.300.50 to 0.800.040.0451.00 to 1.500.45 to 0.75*H,D or E
3,1300.25 to 0.350.50 to 0.800.040.0451.00 to 1.500.45 to 0.75*H,D or E

3,1350.30 to 0.400.50 to 0 800.040.0451.00 to 1.500.45 to 0 75*H,D or E
3,1400.35 to 0.450.50 to 0.800.040.0451.00 to 1.500.45 to 0.75*H,D or E
3,2200.15 to 0.250.30 to 0.600.040.0401.50 to 2.000.90 to 1.25 G,H or D

3,2300.25 to 0.350.30 to 0.600.040.0401.50 to 2.000.90 to 1.25 H or D
3,2400.35 to 0.450.30 to 0.600.040.0401.50 to 2.000.90 to 1.25 H or D
3,2500.45 to 0.550.30 to 0.600.040.0401.50 to 2.000.90 to 1.25 M or Q

X3,3150.10 to 0.200.45 to 0.750.040.0402.75 to 3.250.60 to 0.95 G
X3,3350.30 to 0.400.45 to 0.750.040.0402.75 to 3.250.60 to 0.95 P or R
X3,3500.45 to 0.550.45 to 0.750.040.0402.75 to 3.250.60 to 0.95 P or R

3,3200.15 to 0.250.30 to 0.600.040.0403.25 to 3.751.25 to 1.75 L
3,3300.25 to 0.350.30 to 0.600.040.0403.25 to 3.751.25 to 1.75 P or R
3,3400.35 to 0.450.30 to 0.600.040.0403.25 to 3.751.25 to 1.75 P or R
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Another grade of this type of steel is available with chromium content
of 0.15 per cent to 45 per cent. It has somewhat lower physical properties.

TABLE 8.--CHROMIUM STEELS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E.
Specification
no. --- Carbon Manganese Chromium
(minimum and(minimum andPhosphorusSulphur (minimum and Heat
maximum) maximum) (maximum) (maximum) maximum) treatment
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
5,120 0.15 to 0.25 * 0.04 0.045 0.65 to 0.85 B
5,140 0.35 to 0.45 * 0.04 0.045 0.65 to 0.85 H or D
5,165 0.60 to 0.70 * 0.04 0.045 0.65 to 0.85 H or D

5,195 0.90 to 1.050.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 0.90 to 1.10M, P or R
51,120 1.10 to 1.300.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 0.90 to 1.10M, P or R
5,295 0.90 to 1.050.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 1.10 to 1.30M, P or R
52,120 1.10 to 1.300.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 1.10 to 1.30M, P or R
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Two types of steel are available in this class, one with manganese 0.25
to 0.50 per cent (0.35 per cent desired), and silicon not over 0.20 per
cent; the other with manganese 0.60 to 0.80 per cent (0.70 per cent
desired), and silicon 0.15 to 0.50 per cent.

TABLE 9.--CHROMIUM-VANADIUM STEELS
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E. Phosphorus Sulphur Vanadium
Specification (maximum)(maximum) (minimum)
no. ------ -- / -
Carbon Manganese Chromium Heat
(minimum and(minimum and (minimum and treatment
maximum) maximum) maximum)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6,120 0.15 to 0.250.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 S
6,125 0.20 to 0.300.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 S or T
6,130 0.25 to 0.350.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 T or U
6,135 0.30 to 0.400.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 T or U
6,140 0.35 to 0.450.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 T or U
6,145 0.40 to 0.500.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 U
6,150 0.45 to 0.550.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 U
6,195 0.90 to 1.050.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 U
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 10.--SILICO-MANGANESE STEELS
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
S. A. E.
Specification
no. ----- Carbon Manganese Silicon
(minimum and(minimum andPhosphorusSulphur (minimum and Heat
maximum) maximum) (maximum) (maximum) maximum) treatment
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
9,250 0.45 to 0.550.60 to 0.80 0.045* 0.045 1.80 to 2.10 V
9,260 0.55 to 0.650.50 to 0.70 0.045* 0.045 1.50 to 1.80 V
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Steel made by the acid process may contain maximum 0.05 phosphorus.





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