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Steel Making

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc


HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes should
be heated depends upon the shape, size and use for which they are
intended. Generally, they should not be heated to quite as high a
heat as lathe tools or milling cutters. They should have a high
heat, but not enough to make the flux run on the steel (by pyrometer
1,900 to 2,100 deg.F.).

COOLING.--Depending on the tools, some should be dipped in oil
all over, some only part way, and others allowed to cool down in
the air naturally, or under air blast. In cooling, the toughness
is retained by allowing some parts to cool slowly and quenching
parts that should be hard.

DRAWING THE TEMPER.--As in cooling, some parts of these tools will
require more drawing than others, but, on the whole, they must
be drawn more than water hardening tools for the same purpose or
to about 500 deg.F. all over, so that a good file will just touch
the cutting or working parts.

BARIUM CHLORIDE PROCESS.--This is a process developed for treating
certain classes of tools, such as taps, forming tools, etc. It is
being successfully used in many large plants. Briefly the treatment
is as follows:

In this treatment the tools are first preheated to a red heat,
but small tools may be immersed without preheating. The barium
chloride bath is kept at a temperature of from 2,000 to 2,100 deg.F.,
and tools are held in it long enough to reach the same temperature.
They are then dipped in oil. The barium chloride which adheres
to the tools is brushed off, leaving the tools as dean as before

Next: A Chromium-cobalt Steel

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc

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