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Steel Making

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc


HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes should
be heated depends upon the shape, size and use for which they are
intended. Generally, they should not be heated to quite as high a
heat as lathe tools or milling cutters. They should have a high
heat, but not enough to make the flux run on the steel (by pyrometer
1,900 to 2,100 deg.F.).

COOLING.--Depending on the tools, some should be dipped in oil
all over, some only part way, and others allowed to cool down in
the air naturally, or under air blast. In cooling, the toughness
is retained by allowing some parts to cool slowly and quenching
parts that should be hard.

DRAWING THE TEMPER.--As in cooling, some parts of these tools will
require more drawing than others, but, on the whole, they must
be drawn more than water hardening tools for the same purpose or
to about 500 deg.F. all over, so that a good file will just touch
the cutting or working parts.

BARIUM CHLORIDE PROCESS.--This is a process developed for treating
certain classes of tools, such as taps, forming tools, etc. It is
being successfully used in many large plants. Briefly the treatment
is as follows:

In this treatment the tools are first preheated to a red heat,
but small tools may be immersed without preheating. The barium
chloride bath is kept at a temperature of from 2,000 to 2,100 deg.F.,
and tools are held in it long enough to reach the same temperature.
They are then dipped in oil. The barium chloride which adheres
to the tools is brushed off, leaving the tools as dean as before

Next: A Chromium-cobalt Steel

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc

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