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Steel Making

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc


HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes should
be heated depends upon the shape, size and use for which they are
intended. Generally, they should not be heated to quite as high a
heat as lathe tools or milling cutters. They should have a high
heat, but not enough to make the flux run on the steel (by pyrometer
1,900 to 2,100 deg.F.).

COOLING.--Depending on the tools, some should be dipped in oil
all over, some only part way, and others allowed to cool down in
the air naturally, or under air blast. In cooling, the toughness
is retained by allowing some parts to cool slowly and quenching
parts that should be hard.

DRAWING THE TEMPER.--As in cooling, some parts of these tools will
require more drawing than others, but, on the whole, they must
be drawn more than water hardening tools for the same purpose or
to about 500 deg.F. all over, so that a good file will just touch
the cutting or working parts.

BARIUM CHLORIDE PROCESS.--This is a process developed for treating
certain classes of tools, such as taps, forming tools, etc. It is
being successfully used in many large plants. Briefly the treatment
is as follows:

In this treatment the tools are first preheated to a red heat,
but small tools may be immersed without preheating. The barium
chloride bath is kept at a temperature of from 2,000 to 2,100 deg.F.,
and tools are held in it long enough to reach the same temperature.
They are then dipped in oil. The barium chloride which adheres
to the tools is brushed off, leaving the tools as dean as before

Next: A Chromium-cobalt Steel

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc

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