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Steel Making

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc


HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes should
be heated depends upon the shape, size and use for which they are
intended. Generally, they should not be heated to quite as high a
heat as lathe tools or milling cutters. They should have a high
heat, but not enough to make the flux run on the steel (by pyrometer
1,900 to 2,100 deg.F.).

COOLING.--Depending on the tools, some should be dipped in oil
all over, some only part way, and others allowed to cool down in
the air naturally, or under air blast. In cooling, the toughness
is retained by allowing some parts to cool slowly and quenching
parts that should be hard.

DRAWING THE TEMPER.--As in cooling, some parts of these tools will
require more drawing than others, but, on the whole, they must
be drawn more than water hardening tools for the same purpose or
to about 500 deg.F. all over, so that a good file will just touch
the cutting or working parts.

BARIUM CHLORIDE PROCESS.--This is a process developed for treating
certain classes of tools, such as taps, forming tools, etc. It is
being successfully used in many large plants. Briefly the treatment
is as follows:

In this treatment the tools are first preheated to a red heat,
but small tools may be immersed without preheating. The barium
chloride bath is kept at a temperature of from 2,000 to 2,100 deg.F.,
and tools are held in it long enough to reach the same temperature.
They are then dipped in oil. The barium chloride which adheres
to the tools is brushed off, leaving the tools as dean as before

Next: A Chromium-cobalt Steel

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc

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