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Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc


HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes should
be heated depends upon the shape, size and use for which they are
intended. Generally, they should not be heated to quite as high a
heat as lathe tools or milling cutters. They should have a high
heat, but not enough to make the flux run on the steel (by pyrometer
1,900 to 2,100 deg.F.).

COOLING.--Depending on the tools, some should be dipped in oil
all over, some only part way, and others allowed to cool down in
the air naturally, or under air blast. In cooling, the toughness
is retained by allowing some parts to cool slowly and quenching
parts that should be hard.

DRAWING THE TEMPER.--As in cooling, some parts of these tools will
require more drawing than others, but, on the whole, they must
be drawn more than water hardening tools for the same purpose or
to about 500 deg.F. all over, so that a good file will just touch
the cutting or working parts.

BARIUM CHLORIDE PROCESS.--This is a process developed for treating
certain classes of tools, such as taps, forming tools, etc. It is
being successfully used in many large plants. Briefly the treatment
is as follows:

In this treatment the tools are first preheated to a red heat,
but small tools may be immersed without preheating. The barium
chloride bath is kept at a temperature of from 2,000 to 2,100 deg.F.,
and tools are held in it long enough to reach the same temperature.
They are then dipped in oil. The barium chloride which adheres
to the tools is brushed off, leaving the tools as dean as before

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