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Steel Making

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc


HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes should
be heated depends upon the shape, size and use for which they are
intended. Generally, they should not be heated to quite as high a
heat as lathe tools or milling cutters. They should have a high
heat, but not enough to make the flux run on the steel (by pyrometer
1,900 to 2,100 deg.F.).

COOLING.--Depending on the tools, some should be dipped in oil
all over, some only part way, and others allowed to cool down in
the air naturally, or under air blast. In cooling, the toughness
is retained by allowing some parts to cool slowly and quenching
parts that should be hard.

DRAWING THE TEMPER.--As in cooling, some parts of these tools will
require more drawing than others, but, on the whole, they must
be drawn more than water hardening tools for the same purpose or
to about 500 deg.F. all over, so that a good file will just touch
the cutting or working parts.

BARIUM CHLORIDE PROCESS.--This is a process developed for treating
certain classes of tools, such as taps, forming tools, etc. It is
being successfully used in many large plants. Briefly the treatment
is as follows:

In this treatment the tools are first preheated to a red heat,
but small tools may be immersed without preheating. The barium
chloride bath is kept at a temperature of from 2,000 to 2,100 deg.F.,
and tools are held in it long enough to reach the same temperature.
They are then dipped in oil. The barium chloride which adheres
to the tools is brushed off, leaving the tools as dean as before

Next: A Chromium-cobalt Steel

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc

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