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Steel Making

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc


HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes should
be heated depends upon the shape, size and use for which they are
intended. Generally, they should not be heated to quite as high a
heat as lathe tools or milling cutters. They should have a high
heat, but not enough to make the flux run on the steel (by pyrometer
1,900 to 2,100 deg.F.).

COOLING.--Depending on the tools, some should be dipped in oil
all over, some only part way, and others allowed to cool down in
the air naturally, or under air blast. In cooling, the toughness
is retained by allowing some parts to cool slowly and quenching
parts that should be hard.

DRAWING THE TEMPER.--As in cooling, some parts of these tools will
require more drawing than others, but, on the whole, they must
be drawn more than water hardening tools for the same purpose or
to about 500 deg.F. all over, so that a good file will just touch
the cutting or working parts.

BARIUM CHLORIDE PROCESS.--This is a process developed for treating
certain classes of tools, such as taps, forming tools, etc. It is
being successfully used in many large plants. Briefly the treatment
is as follows:

In this treatment the tools are first preheated to a red heat,
but small tools may be immersed without preheating. The barium
chloride bath is kept at a temperature of from 2,000 to 2,100 deg.F.,
and tools are held in it long enough to reach the same temperature.
They are then dipped in oil. The barium chloride which adheres
to the tools is brushed off, leaving the tools as dean as before

Next: A Chromium-cobalt Steel

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc

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