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Steel Making

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc


HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes should
be heated depends upon the shape, size and use for which they are
intended. Generally, they should not be heated to quite as high a
heat as lathe tools or milling cutters. They should have a high
heat, but not enough to make the flux run on the steel (by pyrometer
1,900 to 2,100 deg.F.).

COOLING.--Depending on the tools, some should be dipped in oil
all over, some only part way, and others allowed to cool down in
the air naturally, or under air blast. In cooling, the toughness
is retained by allowing some parts to cool slowly and quenching
parts that should be hard.

DRAWING THE TEMPER.--As in cooling, some parts of these tools will
require more drawing than others, but, on the whole, they must
be drawn more than water hardening tools for the same purpose or
to about 500 deg.F. all over, so that a good file will just touch
the cutting or working parts.

BARIUM CHLORIDE PROCESS.--This is a process developed for treating
certain classes of tools, such as taps, forming tools, etc. It is
being successfully used in many large plants. Briefly the treatment
is as follows:

In this treatment the tools are first preheated to a red heat,
but small tools may be immersed without preheating. The barium
chloride bath is kept at a temperature of from 2,000 to 2,100 deg.F.,
and tools are held in it long enough to reach the same temperature.
They are then dipped in oil. The barium chloride which adheres
to the tools is brushed off, leaving the tools as dean as before

Next: A Chromium-cobalt Steel

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc

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