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Steel Making

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc


HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes should
be heated depends upon the shape, size and use for which they are
intended. Generally, they should not be heated to quite as high a
heat as lathe tools or milling cutters. They should have a high
heat, but not enough to make the flux run on the steel (by pyrometer
1,900 to 2,100 deg.F.).

COOLING.--Depending on the tools, some should be dipped in oil
all over, some only part way, and others allowed to cool down in
the air naturally, or under air blast. In cooling, the toughness
is retained by allowing some parts to cool slowly and quenching
parts that should be hard.

DRAWING THE TEMPER.--As in cooling, some parts of these tools will
require more drawing than others, but, on the whole, they must
be drawn more than water hardening tools for the same purpose or
to about 500 deg.F. all over, so that a good file will just touch
the cutting or working parts.

BARIUM CHLORIDE PROCESS.--This is a process developed for treating
certain classes of tools, such as taps, forming tools, etc. It is
being successfully used in many large plants. Briefly the treatment
is as follows:

In this treatment the tools are first preheated to a red heat,
but small tools may be immersed without preheating. The barium
chloride bath is kept at a temperature of from 2,000 to 2,100 deg.F.,
and tools are held in it long enough to reach the same temperature.
They are then dipped in oil. The barium chloride which adheres
to the tools is brushed off, leaving the tools as dean as before

Next: A Chromium-cobalt Steel

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc

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