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Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc


HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes should
be heated depends upon the shape, size and use for which they are
intended. Generally, they should not be heated to quite as high a
heat as lathe tools or milling cutters. They should have a high
heat, but not enough to make the flux run on the steel (by pyrometer
1,900 to 2,100 deg.F.).

COOLING.--Depending on the tools, some should be dipped in oil
all over, some only part way, and others allowed to cool down in
the air naturally, or under air blast. In cooling, the toughness
is retained by allowing some parts to cool slowly and quenching
parts that should be hard.

DRAWING THE TEMPER.--As in cooling, some parts of these tools will
require more drawing than others, but, on the whole, they must
be drawn more than water hardening tools for the same purpose or
to about 500 deg.F. all over, so that a good file will just touch
the cutting or working parts.

BARIUM CHLORIDE PROCESS.--This is a process developed for treating
certain classes of tools, such as taps, forming tools, etc. It is
being successfully used in many large plants. Briefly the treatment
is as follows:

In this treatment the tools are first preheated to a red heat,
but small tools may be immersed without preheating. The barium
chloride bath is kept at a temperature of from 2,000 to 2,100 deg.F.,
and tools are held in it long enough to reach the same temperature.
They are then dipped in oil. The barium chloride which adheres
to the tools is brushed off, leaving the tools as dean as before

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