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Steel Making

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc


HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes should
be heated depends upon the shape, size and use for which they are
intended. Generally, they should not be heated to quite as high a
heat as lathe tools or milling cutters. They should have a high
heat, but not enough to make the flux run on the steel (by pyrometer
1,900 to 2,100 deg.F.).

COOLING.--Depending on the tools, some should be dipped in oil
all over, some only part way, and others allowed to cool down in
the air naturally, or under air blast. In cooling, the toughness
is retained by allowing some parts to cool slowly and quenching
parts that should be hard.

DRAWING THE TEMPER.--As in cooling, some parts of these tools will
require more drawing than others, but, on the whole, they must
be drawn more than water hardening tools for the same purpose or
to about 500 deg.F. all over, so that a good file will just touch
the cutting or working parts.

BARIUM CHLORIDE PROCESS.--This is a process developed for treating
certain classes of tools, such as taps, forming tools, etc. It is
being successfully used in many large plants. Briefly the treatment
is as follows:

In this treatment the tools are first preheated to a red heat,
but small tools may be immersed without preheating. The barium
chloride bath is kept at a temperature of from 2,000 to 2,100 deg.F.,
and tools are held in it long enough to reach the same temperature.
They are then dipped in oil. The barium chloride which adheres
to the tools is brushed off, leaving the tools as dean as before

Next: A Chromium-cobalt Steel

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc

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