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Steel Making

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc


THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats are
now made for treating high-speed steels. We recommend them for
treating all kinds of Blue Chip tools and particularly the above
class. After tools reach a yellow heat in the forge fire they must
not be allowed to touch the fuel or come in contact with the blast
or surrounding air.

HEATING.--Tools of this kind should be heated to a mellow white
heat, or as hot as possible without injuring the cutting edges
(2,000 to 2,200 deg.F.). For most work the higher the heat the better
the tool. Where furnaces are used, we recommend preheating the
tools to a red heat in one furnace before putting them in a white
hot furnace.

COOLING.--We recommend quenching all of the above tools in oil
when taken from the fire. We have found fish oil, cottonseed oil,
Houghton's No. 2 soluble oil and linseed oil satisfactory. The
high heat is the important thing in hardening Blue Chip tools.
If a white hot tool is allowed to cool in the open air it will be
hard, but the air scales the tool.

DRAWING THE TEMPER.--Tools of this class should be drawn considerably
more than water-hardening steel for the same purpose.

Next: Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc

Previous: Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools

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