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Steel Making

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Knowing What Takes Place


How are we to know if we have given a
piece of steel the very best possible treatment?

The best method is by microscopic examination of polished and etched
sections, but this requires a certain expense for laboratory equipment
and upkeep, which may prevent an ordinary commercial plant from
attempting such a refinement. It is highly recommended that any
firm that has any large amount of heat treatment to do, install
such an equipment, which can be purchased for from $250 to $500.
Its intelligent use will save its cost in a very short time.

The other method is by examination of fractures of small test bars.
Steel heated to its correct temperatures will show the finest possible
grain, whereas underheated steel has not had its grain structure
refined sufficiently, and so will not be at its best. On the other
hand, overheated steel will have a coarser structure, depending
on the extent of overheating.

To determine the proper quenching temperature of any particular
grade of steel it is only necessary to heat pieces to various
temperatures not more than 20 deg.C. (36 deg.F.) apart, quench in water,
break them, and examine the fractures. The temperature producing
the finest grain should be used for annealing and hardening.

Similarly, to determine tempering temperatures, several pieces
should be hardened, then tempered to various degrees, and cooled
in air. Samples, say six, reheated to temperatures varying by 100 deg.
from 300 to 800 deg.C. will show a considerable range of properties,
and the drawing temperature of the piece giving the desired results
can be used.

For drawing tempers up to 500 deg.F. oil baths of fresh cotton seed
oil can be safely and satisfactorily used. For higher temperature
a bath of some kind of fused salt is recommended.

Next: Hints For Tool Steel Users

Previous: Temperatures To Use

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