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Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...



Knowing What Takes Place






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

How are we to know if we have given a
piece of steel the very best possible treatment?

The best method is by microscopic examination of polished and etched
sections, but this requires a certain expense for laboratory equipment
and upkeep, which may prevent an ordinary commercial plant from
attempting such a refinement. It is highly recommended that any
firm that has any large amount of heat treatment to do, install
such an equipment, which can be purchased for from $250 to $500.
Its intelligent use will save its cost in a very short time.

The other method is by examination of fractures of small test bars.
Steel heated to its correct temperatures will show the finest possible
grain, whereas underheated steel has not had its grain structure
refined sufficiently, and so will not be at its best. On the other
hand, overheated steel will have a coarser structure, depending
on the extent of overheating.

To determine the proper quenching temperature of any particular
grade of steel it is only necessary to heat pieces to various
temperatures not more than 20 deg.C. (36 deg.F.) apart, quench in water,
break them, and examine the fractures. The temperature producing
the finest grain should be used for annealing and hardening.

Similarly, to determine tempering temperatures, several pieces
should be hardened, then tempered to various degrees, and cooled
in air. Samples, say six, reheated to temperatures varying by 100 deg.
from 300 to 800 deg.C. will show a considerable range of properties,
and the drawing temperature of the piece giving the desired results
can be used.

For drawing tempers up to 500 deg.F. oil baths of fresh cotton seed
oil can be safely and satisfactorily used. For higher temperature
a bath of some kind of fused salt is recommended.





Next: Hints For Tool Steel Users

Previous: Temperatures To Use



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