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Steel Making

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...



Knowing What Takes Place






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

How are we to know if we have given a
piece of steel the very best possible treatment?

The best method is by microscopic examination of polished and etched
sections, but this requires a certain expense for laboratory equipment
and upkeep, which may prevent an ordinary commercial plant from
attempting such a refinement. It is highly recommended that any
firm that has any large amount of heat treatment to do, install
such an equipment, which can be purchased for from $250 to $500.
Its intelligent use will save its cost in a very short time.

The other method is by examination of fractures of small test bars.
Steel heated to its correct temperatures will show the finest possible
grain, whereas underheated steel has not had its grain structure
refined sufficiently, and so will not be at its best. On the other
hand, overheated steel will have a coarser structure, depending
on the extent of overheating.

To determine the proper quenching temperature of any particular
grade of steel it is only necessary to heat pieces to various
temperatures not more than 20 deg.C. (36 deg.F.) apart, quench in water,
break them, and examine the fractures. The temperature producing
the finest grain should be used for annealing and hardening.

Similarly, to determine tempering temperatures, several pieces
should be hardened, then tempered to various degrees, and cooled
in air. Samples, say six, reheated to temperatures varying by 100 deg.
from 300 to 800 deg.C. will show a considerable range of properties,
and the drawing temperature of the piece giving the desired results
can be used.

For drawing tempers up to 500 deg.F. oil baths of fresh cotton seed
oil can be safely and satisfactorily used. For higher temperature
a bath of some kind of fused salt is recommended.





Next: Hints For Tool Steel Users

Previous: Temperatures To Use



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