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Steel Making

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Judging The Heat Of Steel


While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have
accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or
hardening steels, a color chart will be of considerable assistance
if carefully studied. These have been prepared by several of the
steel companies as a guide, but it must be remembered that the colors
and temperatures given are only approximate, and can be nothing

The Magnet Test.--The critical point can also be determined by
an ordinary horse-shoe magnet. Touch the steel with a magnet during
the heating and when it reaches the temperature at which steel fails
to attract the magnet, or in other words, loses its magnetism,
the critical point has been reached.

The work is heated up slowly in the furnace and the magnet applied
from time to time. The steel being heated will attract the magnet
until the heat reaches the critical point. The magnet is applied
frequently and when the magnet is no longer attracted, the piece
is at the lowest temperature at which it can be hardened properly.
Quenching slightly above this point will give a tool of satisfactory
hardness. The method applies only to carbon steels and will not
work for modern high-speed steels.

Next: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

Previous: Hardening

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