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Steel Making

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Judging The Heat Of Steel


While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have
accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or
hardening steels, a color chart will be of considerable assistance
if carefully studied. These have been prepared by several of the
steel companies as a guide, but it must be remembered that the colors
and temperatures given are only approximate, and can be nothing

The Magnet Test.--The critical point can also be determined by
an ordinary horse-shoe magnet. Touch the steel with a magnet during
the heating and when it reaches the temperature at which steel fails
to attract the magnet, or in other words, loses its magnetism,
the critical point has been reached.

The work is heated up slowly in the furnace and the magnet applied
from time to time. The steel being heated will attract the magnet
until the heat reaches the critical point. The magnet is applied
frequently and when the magnet is no longer attracted, the piece
is at the lowest temperature at which it can be hardened properly.
Quenching slightly above this point will give a tool of satisfactory
hardness. The method applies only to carbon steels and will not
work for modern high-speed steels.

Next: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

Previous: Hardening

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