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Steel Making

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Judging The Heat Of Steel


While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have
accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or
hardening steels, a color chart will be of considerable assistance
if carefully studied. These have been prepared by several of the
steel companies as a guide, but it must be remembered that the colors
and temperatures given are only approximate, and can be nothing

The Magnet Test.--The critical point can also be determined by
an ordinary horse-shoe magnet. Touch the steel with a magnet during
the heating and when it reaches the temperature at which steel fails
to attract the magnet, or in other words, loses its magnetism,
the critical point has been reached.

The work is heated up slowly in the furnace and the magnet applied
from time to time. The steel being heated will attract the magnet
until the heat reaches the critical point. The magnet is applied
frequently and when the magnet is no longer attracted, the piece
is at the lowest temperature at which it can be hardened properly.
Quenching slightly above this point will give a tool of satisfactory
hardness. The method applies only to carbon steels and will not
work for modern high-speed steels.

Next: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

Previous: Hardening

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