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Steel Making

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Judging The Heat Of Steel


While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have
accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or
hardening steels, a color chart will be of considerable assistance
if carefully studied. These have been prepared by several of the
steel companies as a guide, but it must be remembered that the colors
and temperatures given are only approximate, and can be nothing

The Magnet Test.--The critical point can also be determined by
an ordinary horse-shoe magnet. Touch the steel with a magnet during
the heating and when it reaches the temperature at which steel fails
to attract the magnet, or in other words, loses its magnetism,
the critical point has been reached.

The work is heated up slowly in the furnace and the magnet applied
from time to time. The steel being heated will attract the magnet
until the heat reaches the critical point. The magnet is applied
frequently and when the magnet is no longer attracted, the piece
is at the lowest temperature at which it can be hardened properly.
Quenching slightly above this point will give a tool of satisfactory
hardness. The method applies only to carbon steels and will not
work for modern high-speed steels.

Next: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

Previous: Hardening

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