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Steel Making

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Judging The Heat Of Steel


While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have
accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or
hardening steels, a color chart will be of considerable assistance
if carefully studied. These have been prepared by several of the
steel companies as a guide, but it must be remembered that the colors
and temperatures given are only approximate, and can be nothing

The Magnet Test.--The critical point can also be determined by
an ordinary horse-shoe magnet. Touch the steel with a magnet during
the heating and when it reaches the temperature at which steel fails
to attract the magnet, or in other words, loses its magnetism,
the critical point has been reached.

The work is heated up slowly in the furnace and the magnet applied
from time to time. The steel being heated will attract the magnet
until the heat reaches the critical point. The magnet is applied
frequently and when the magnet is no longer attracted, the piece
is at the lowest temperature at which it can be hardened properly.
Quenching slightly above this point will give a tool of satisfactory
hardness. The method applies only to carbon steels and will not
work for modern high-speed steels.

Next: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

Previous: Hardening

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