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Steel Making

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Judging The Heat Of Steel


While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have
accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or
hardening steels, a color chart will be of considerable assistance
if carefully studied. These have been prepared by several of the
steel companies as a guide, but it must be remembered that the colors
and temperatures given are only approximate, and can be nothing

The Magnet Test.--The critical point can also be determined by
an ordinary horse-shoe magnet. Touch the steel with a magnet during
the heating and when it reaches the temperature at which steel fails
to attract the magnet, or in other words, loses its magnetism,
the critical point has been reached.

The work is heated up slowly in the furnace and the magnet applied
from time to time. The steel being heated will attract the magnet
until the heat reaches the critical point. The magnet is applied
frequently and when the magnet is no longer attracted, the piece
is at the lowest temperature at which it can be hardened properly.
Quenching slightly above this point will give a tool of satisfactory
hardness. The method applies only to carbon steels and will not
work for modern high-speed steels.

Next: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

Previous: Hardening

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