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Steel Making

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Judging The Heat Of Steel


While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have
accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or
hardening steels, a color chart will be of considerable assistance
if carefully studied. These have been prepared by several of the
steel companies as a guide, but it must be remembered that the colors
and temperatures given are only approximate, and can be nothing

The Magnet Test.--The critical point can also be determined by
an ordinary horse-shoe magnet. Touch the steel with a magnet during
the heating and when it reaches the temperature at which steel fails
to attract the magnet, or in other words, loses its magnetism,
the critical point has been reached.

The work is heated up slowly in the furnace and the magnet applied
from time to time. The steel being heated will attract the magnet
until the heat reaches the critical point. The magnet is applied
frequently and when the magnet is no longer attracted, the piece
is at the lowest temperature at which it can be hardened properly.
Quenching slightly above this point will give a tool of satisfactory
hardness. The method applies only to carbon steels and will not
work for modern high-speed steels.

Next: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

Previous: Hardening

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