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Steel Making

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Judging The Heat Of Steel


While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have
accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or
hardening steels, a color chart will be of considerable assistance
if carefully studied. These have been prepared by several of the
steel companies as a guide, but it must be remembered that the colors
and temperatures given are only approximate, and can be nothing

The Magnet Test.--The critical point can also be determined by
an ordinary horse-shoe magnet. Touch the steel with a magnet during
the heating and when it reaches the temperature at which steel fails
to attract the magnet, or in other words, loses its magnetism,
the critical point has been reached.

The work is heated up slowly in the furnace and the magnet applied
from time to time. The steel being heated will attract the magnet
until the heat reaches the critical point. The magnet is applied
frequently and when the magnet is no longer attracted, the piece
is at the lowest temperature at which it can be hardened properly.
Quenching slightly above this point will give a tool of satisfactory
hardness. The method applies only to carbon steels and will not
work for modern high-speed steels.

Next: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

Previous: Hardening

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