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Steel Making

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Judging The Heat Of Steel


While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have
accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or
hardening steels, a color chart will be of considerable assistance
if carefully studied. These have been prepared by several of the
steel companies as a guide, but it must be remembered that the colors
and temperatures given are only approximate, and can be nothing

The Magnet Test.--The critical point can also be determined by
an ordinary horse-shoe magnet. Touch the steel with a magnet during
the heating and when it reaches the temperature at which steel fails
to attract the magnet, or in other words, loses its magnetism,
the critical point has been reached.

The work is heated up slowly in the furnace and the magnet applied
from time to time. The steel being heated will attract the magnet
until the heat reaches the critical point. The magnet is applied
frequently and when the magnet is no longer attracted, the piece
is at the lowest temperature at which it can be hardened properly.
Quenching slightly above this point will give a tool of satisfactory
hardness. The method applies only to carbon steels and will not
work for modern high-speed steels.

Next: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

Previous: Hardening

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