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Steel Making

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Judging The Heat Of Steel


While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have
accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or
hardening steels, a color chart will be of considerable assistance
if carefully studied. These have been prepared by several of the
steel companies as a guide, but it must be remembered that the colors
and temperatures given are only approximate, and can be nothing

The Magnet Test.--The critical point can also be determined by
an ordinary horse-shoe magnet. Touch the steel with a magnet during
the heating and when it reaches the temperature at which steel fails
to attract the magnet, or in other words, loses its magnetism,
the critical point has been reached.

The work is heated up slowly in the furnace and the magnet applied
from time to time. The steel being heated will attract the magnet
until the heat reaches the critical point. The magnet is applied
frequently and when the magnet is no longer attracted, the piece
is at the lowest temperature at which it can be hardened properly.
Quenching slightly above this point will give a tool of satisfactory
hardness. The method applies only to carbon steels and will not
work for modern high-speed steels.

Next: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

Previous: Hardening

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