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Steel Making

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Judging The Heat Of Steel


While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have
accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or
hardening steels, a color chart will be of considerable assistance
if carefully studied. These have been prepared by several of the
steel companies as a guide, but it must be remembered that the colors
and temperatures given are only approximate, and can be nothing

The Magnet Test.--The critical point can also be determined by
an ordinary horse-shoe magnet. Touch the steel with a magnet during
the heating and when it reaches the temperature at which steel fails
to attract the magnet, or in other words, loses its magnetism,
the critical point has been reached.

The work is heated up slowly in the furnace and the magnet applied
from time to time. The steel being heated will attract the magnet
until the heat reaches the critical point. The magnet is applied
frequently and when the magnet is no longer attracted, the piece
is at the lowest temperature at which it can be hardened properly.
Quenching slightly above this point will give a tool of satisfactory
hardness. The method applies only to carbon steels and will not
work for modern high-speed steels.

Next: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

Previous: Hardening

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