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Steel Making

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Judging The Heat Of Steel


While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have
accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or
hardening steels, a color chart will be of considerable assistance
if carefully studied. These have been prepared by several of the
steel companies as a guide, but it must be remembered that the colors
and temperatures given are only approximate, and can be nothing

The Magnet Test.--The critical point can also be determined by
an ordinary horse-shoe magnet. Touch the steel with a magnet during
the heating and when it reaches the temperature at which steel fails
to attract the magnet, or in other words, loses its magnetism,
the critical point has been reached.

The work is heated up slowly in the furnace and the magnet applied
from time to time. The steel being heated will attract the magnet
until the heat reaches the critical point. The magnet is applied
frequently and when the magnet is no longer attracted, the piece
is at the lowest temperature at which it can be hardened properly.
Quenching slightly above this point will give a tool of satisfactory
hardness. The method applies only to carbon steels and will not
work for modern high-speed steels.

Next: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

Previous: Hardening

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