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Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Judging The Heat Of Steel


While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have
accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or
hardening steels, a color chart will be of considerable assistance
if carefully studied. These have been prepared by several of the
steel companies as a guide, but it must be remembered that the colors
and temperatures given are only approximate, and can be nothing

The Magnet Test.--The critical point can also be determined by
an ordinary horse-shoe magnet. Touch the steel with a magnet during
the heating and when it reaches the temperature at which steel fails
to attract the magnet, or in other words, loses its magnetism,
the critical point has been reached.

The work is heated up slowly in the furnace and the magnet applied
from time to time. The steel being heated will attract the magnet
until the heat reaches the critical point. The magnet is applied
frequently and when the magnet is no longer attracted, the piece
is at the lowest temperature at which it can be hardened properly.
Quenching slightly above this point will give a tool of satisfactory
hardness. The method applies only to carbon steels and will not
work for modern high-speed steels.

Next: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

Previous: Hardening

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