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Steel Making

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Judging The Heat Of Steel


While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have
accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or
hardening steels, a color chart will be of considerable assistance
if carefully studied. These have been prepared by several of the
steel companies as a guide, but it must be remembered that the colors
and temperatures given are only approximate, and can be nothing

The Magnet Test.--The critical point can also be determined by
an ordinary horse-shoe magnet. Touch the steel with a magnet during
the heating and when it reaches the temperature at which steel fails
to attract the magnet, or in other words, loses its magnetism,
the critical point has been reached.

The work is heated up slowly in the furnace and the magnet applied
from time to time. The steel being heated will attract the magnet
until the heat reaches the critical point. The magnet is applied
frequently and when the magnet is no longer attracted, the piece
is at the lowest temperature at which it can be hardened properly.
Quenching slightly above this point will give a tool of satisfactory
hardness. The method applies only to carbon steels and will not
work for modern high-speed steels.

Next: Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks

Previous: Hardening

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