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Steel Making

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users


Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to the
best steel to use for a given purpose, mentioning in as much detail
as possible the use for which it is intended.

Do not heat the steel to a higher degree than that fixed in the
description of each class. Never heat the steel to more than a
cherry red without forging it or giving it a definite heat treatment.
Heating steel at even moderate temperature is liable to coarsen the
grain which can only be restored by forging or by heat treating.

Let the forging begin as soon as the steel is hot enough and never
let tool steel soak in the fire. Continue the hammering vigorously
and constantly, using lighter blows as it cools off, and stopping
when the heat becomes a very dull red or a faint brown.

Should welding be necessary care should be taken not to overheat
in order to make an easy weld. Keep it below the sparkling point
as this indicates that the steel is burnt.

Begin to forge as soon as the welds are put together, taking care
to use gentle strokes at first increasing them as the higher heat
falls, but not overdoing the hammering when the steel cools. The
hammering should be extended beyond the welding point and should
continue until the dull red or brown heat is reached.

Next: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

Previous: Knowing What Takes Place

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