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Steel Making

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Hints For Tool Steel Users


Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to the
best steel to use for a given purpose, mentioning in as much detail
as possible the use for which it is intended.

Do not heat the steel to a higher degree than that fixed in the
description of each class. Never heat the steel to more than a
cherry red without forging it or giving it a definite heat treatment.
Heating steel at even moderate temperature is liable to coarsen the
grain which can only be restored by forging or by heat treating.

Let the forging begin as soon as the steel is hot enough and never
let tool steel soak in the fire. Continue the hammering vigorously
and constantly, using lighter blows as it cools off, and stopping
when the heat becomes a very dull red or a faint brown.

Should welding be necessary care should be taken not to overheat
in order to make an easy weld. Keep it below the sparkling point
as this indicates that the steel is burnt.

Begin to forge as soon as the welds are put together, taking care
to use gentle strokes at first increasing them as the higher heat
falls, but not overdoing the hammering when the steel cools. The
hammering should be extended beyond the welding point and should
continue until the dull red or brown heat is reached.

Next: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

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