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Steel Making

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Hints For Tool Steel Users


Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to the
best steel to use for a given purpose, mentioning in as much detail
as possible the use for which it is intended.

Do not heat the steel to a higher degree than that fixed in the
description of each class. Never heat the steel to more than a
cherry red without forging it or giving it a definite heat treatment.
Heating steel at even moderate temperature is liable to coarsen the
grain which can only be restored by forging or by heat treating.

Let the forging begin as soon as the steel is hot enough and never
let tool steel soak in the fire. Continue the hammering vigorously
and constantly, using lighter blows as it cools off, and stopping
when the heat becomes a very dull red or a faint brown.

Should welding be necessary care should be taken not to overheat
in order to make an easy weld. Keep it below the sparkling point
as this indicates that the steel is burnt.

Begin to forge as soon as the welds are put together, taking care
to use gentle strokes at first increasing them as the higher heat
falls, but not overdoing the hammering when the steel cools. The
hammering should be extended beyond the welding point and should
continue until the dull red or brown heat is reached.

Next: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

Previous: Knowing What Takes Place

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