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Steel Making

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Hints For Tool Steel Users


Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to the
best steel to use for a given purpose, mentioning in as much detail
as possible the use for which it is intended.

Do not heat the steel to a higher degree than that fixed in the
description of each class. Never heat the steel to more than a
cherry red without forging it or giving it a definite heat treatment.
Heating steel at even moderate temperature is liable to coarsen the
grain which can only be restored by forging or by heat treating.

Let the forging begin as soon as the steel is hot enough and never
let tool steel soak in the fire. Continue the hammering vigorously
and constantly, using lighter blows as it cools off, and stopping
when the heat becomes a very dull red or a faint brown.

Should welding be necessary care should be taken not to overheat
in order to make an easy weld. Keep it below the sparkling point
as this indicates that the steel is burnt.

Begin to forge as soon as the welds are put together, taking care
to use gentle strokes at first increasing them as the higher heat
falls, but not overdoing the hammering when the steel cools. The
hammering should be extended beyond the welding point and should
continue until the dull red or brown heat is reached.

Next: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

Previous: Knowing What Takes Place

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