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Steel Making

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Hints For Tool Steel Users


Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to the
best steel to use for a given purpose, mentioning in as much detail
as possible the use for which it is intended.

Do not heat the steel to a higher degree than that fixed in the
description of each class. Never heat the steel to more than a
cherry red without forging it or giving it a definite heat treatment.
Heating steel at even moderate temperature is liable to coarsen the
grain which can only be restored by forging or by heat treating.

Let the forging begin as soon as the steel is hot enough and never
let tool steel soak in the fire. Continue the hammering vigorously
and constantly, using lighter blows as it cools off, and stopping
when the heat becomes a very dull red or a faint brown.

Should welding be necessary care should be taken not to overheat
in order to make an easy weld. Keep it below the sparkling point
as this indicates that the steel is burnt.

Begin to forge as soon as the welds are put together, taking care
to use gentle strokes at first increasing them as the higher heat
falls, but not overdoing the hammering when the steel cools. The
hammering should be extended beyond the welding point and should
continue until the dull red or brown heat is reached.

Next: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

Previous: Knowing What Takes Place

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