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Steel Making

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Hints For Tool Steel Users


Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to the
best steel to use for a given purpose, mentioning in as much detail
as possible the use for which it is intended.

Do not heat the steel to a higher degree than that fixed in the
description of each class. Never heat the steel to more than a
cherry red without forging it or giving it a definite heat treatment.
Heating steel at even moderate temperature is liable to coarsen the
grain which can only be restored by forging or by heat treating.

Let the forging begin as soon as the steel is hot enough and never
let tool steel soak in the fire. Continue the hammering vigorously
and constantly, using lighter blows as it cools off, and stopping
when the heat becomes a very dull red or a faint brown.

Should welding be necessary care should be taken not to overheat
in order to make an easy weld. Keep it below the sparkling point
as this indicates that the steel is burnt.

Begin to forge as soon as the welds are put together, taking care
to use gentle strokes at first increasing them as the higher heat
falls, but not overdoing the hammering when the steel cools. The
hammering should be extended beyond the welding point and should
continue until the dull red or brown heat is reached.

Next: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

Previous: Knowing What Takes Place

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