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Steel Making

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Hints For Tool Steel Users


Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to the
best steel to use for a given purpose, mentioning in as much detail
as possible the use for which it is intended.

Do not heat the steel to a higher degree than that fixed in the
description of each class. Never heat the steel to more than a
cherry red without forging it or giving it a definite heat treatment.
Heating steel at even moderate temperature is liable to coarsen the
grain which can only be restored by forging or by heat treating.

Let the forging begin as soon as the steel is hot enough and never
let tool steel soak in the fire. Continue the hammering vigorously
and constantly, using lighter blows as it cools off, and stopping
when the heat becomes a very dull red or a faint brown.

Should welding be necessary care should be taken not to overheat
in order to make an easy weld. Keep it below the sparkling point
as this indicates that the steel is burnt.

Begin to forge as soon as the welds are put together, taking care
to use gentle strokes at first increasing them as the higher heat
falls, but not overdoing the hammering when the steel cools. The
hammering should be extended beyond the welding point and should
continue until the dull red or brown heat is reached.

Next: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

Previous: Knowing What Takes Place

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