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Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Properties Of Steel


Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less
crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the
grain exhibited by a freshly broken piece of steel. The cold-bend
test was also very useful--a small bar was bent flat upon itself,
and the stretched fibers examined for any sign of break. Harder
stiff steels were supported at the ends and the amount of central
load they would support before fracture, or the amount of permanent
set they would acquire at a given load noted. Files were also used
to test the hardness of very hard steel.

These tests are still used to a considerable extent, especially in
works where the progress of an operation can be kept under close
watch in this way, the product being periodically examined by more
precise methods. The chief furnace-man, or melter, in a steel
plant, judges the course of the refining process by casting small
test ingots from time to time, breaking them and examining the
fracture. Cutlery manufacturers use the bend test to judge the
temper of blades. File testing of case-hardened parts is very common.

However there is need of standardized methods which depend less
upon the individual skill of the operator, and which will yield
results comparable to others made by different men at different
places and on different steels. Hence has grown up the art of testing

Next: Tensile Properties

Previous: Alloying Elements

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