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Steel Making

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Properties Of Steel


Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less
crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the
grain exhibited by a freshly broken piece of steel. The cold-bend
test was also very useful--a small bar was bent flat upon itself,
and the stretched fibers examined for any sign of break. Harder
stiff steels were supported at the ends and the amount of central
load they would support before fracture, or the amount of permanent
set they would acquire at a given load noted. Files were also used
to test the hardness of very hard steel.

These tests are still used to a considerable extent, especially in
works where the progress of an operation can be kept under close
watch in this way, the product being periodically examined by more
precise methods. The chief furnace-man, or melter, in a steel
plant, judges the course of the refining process by casting small
test ingots from time to time, breaking them and examining the
fracture. Cutlery manufacturers use the bend test to judge the
temper of blades. File testing of case-hardened parts is very common.

However there is need of standardized methods which depend less
upon the individual skill of the operator, and which will yield
results comparable to others made by different men at different
places and on different steels. Hence has grown up the art of testing

Next: Tensile Properties

Previous: Alloying Elements

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