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Steel Making

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Properties Of Steel


Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less
crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the
grain exhibited by a freshly broken piece of steel. The cold-bend
test was also very useful--a small bar was bent flat upon itself,
and the stretched fibers examined for any sign of break. Harder
stiff steels were supported at the ends and the amount of central
load they would support before fracture, or the amount of permanent
set they would acquire at a given load noted. Files were also used
to test the hardness of very hard steel.

These tests are still used to a considerable extent, especially in
works where the progress of an operation can be kept under close
watch in this way, the product being periodically examined by more
precise methods. The chief furnace-man, or melter, in a steel
plant, judges the course of the refining process by casting small
test ingots from time to time, breaking them and examining the
fracture. Cutlery manufacturers use the bend test to judge the
temper of blades. File testing of case-hardened parts is very common.

However there is need of standardized methods which depend less
upon the individual skill of the operator, and which will yield
results comparable to others made by different men at different
places and on different steels. Hence has grown up the art of testing

Next: Tensile Properties

Previous: Alloying Elements

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