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Steel Making

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Properties Of Steel


Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less
crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the
grain exhibited by a freshly broken piece of steel. The cold-bend
test was also very useful--a small bar was bent flat upon itself,
and the stretched fibers examined for any sign of break. Harder
stiff steels were supported at the ends and the amount of central
load they would support before fracture, or the amount of permanent
set they would acquire at a given load noted. Files were also used
to test the hardness of very hard steel.

These tests are still used to a considerable extent, especially in
works where the progress of an operation can be kept under close
watch in this way, the product being periodically examined by more
precise methods. The chief furnace-man, or melter, in a steel
plant, judges the course of the refining process by casting small
test ingots from time to time, breaking them and examining the
fracture. Cutlery manufacturers use the bend test to judge the
temper of blades. File testing of case-hardened parts is very common.

However there is need of standardized methods which depend less
upon the individual skill of the operator, and which will yield
results comparable to others made by different men at different
places and on different steels. Hence has grown up the art of testing

Next: Tensile Properties

Previous: Alloying Elements

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