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Steel Making

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Properties Of Steel


Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less
crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the
grain exhibited by a freshly broken piece of steel. The cold-bend
test was also very useful--a small bar was bent flat upon itself,
and the stretched fibers examined for any sign of break. Harder
stiff steels were supported at the ends and the amount of central
load they would support before fracture, or the amount of permanent
set they would acquire at a given load noted. Files were also used
to test the hardness of very hard steel.

These tests are still used to a considerable extent, especially in
works where the progress of an operation can be kept under close
watch in this way, the product being periodically examined by more
precise methods. The chief furnace-man, or melter, in a steel
plant, judges the course of the refining process by casting small
test ingots from time to time, breaking them and examining the
fracture. Cutlery manufacturers use the bend test to judge the
temper of blades. File testing of case-hardened parts is very common.

However there is need of standardized methods which depend less
upon the individual skill of the operator, and which will yield
results comparable to others made by different men at different
places and on different steels. Hence has grown up the art of testing

Next: Tensile Properties

Previous: Alloying Elements

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