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Steel Making

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Properties Of Steel


Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less
crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the
grain exhibited by a freshly broken piece of steel. The cold-bend
test was also very useful--a small bar was bent flat upon itself,
and the stretched fibers examined for any sign of break. Harder
stiff steels were supported at the ends and the amount of central
load they would support before fracture, or the amount of permanent
set they would acquire at a given load noted. Files were also used
to test the hardness of very hard steel.

These tests are still used to a considerable extent, especially in
works where the progress of an operation can be kept under close
watch in this way, the product being periodically examined by more
precise methods. The chief furnace-man, or melter, in a steel
plant, judges the course of the refining process by casting small
test ingots from time to time, breaking them and examining the
fracture. Cutlery manufacturers use the bend test to judge the
temper of blades. File testing of case-hardened parts is very common.

However there is need of standardized methods which depend less
upon the individual skill of the operator, and which will yield
results comparable to others made by different men at different
places and on different steels. Hence has grown up the art of testing

Next: Tensile Properties

Previous: Alloying Elements

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