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Steel Making

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Properties Of Steel


Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less
crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the
grain exhibited by a freshly broken piece of steel. The cold-bend
test was also very useful--a small bar was bent flat upon itself,
and the stretched fibers examined for any sign of break. Harder
stiff steels were supported at the ends and the amount of central
load they would support before fracture, or the amount of permanent
set they would acquire at a given load noted. Files were also used
to test the hardness of very hard steel.

These tests are still used to a considerable extent, especially in
works where the progress of an operation can be kept under close
watch in this way, the product being periodically examined by more
precise methods. The chief furnace-man, or melter, in a steel
plant, judges the course of the refining process by casting small
test ingots from time to time, breaking them and examining the
fracture. Cutlery manufacturers use the bend test to judge the
temper of blades. File testing of case-hardened parts is very common.

However there is need of standardized methods which depend less
upon the individual skill of the operator, and which will yield
results comparable to others made by different men at different
places and on different steels. Hence has grown up the art of testing

Next: Tensile Properties

Previous: Alloying Elements

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