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Steel Making

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Properties Of Steel


Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less
crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the
grain exhibited by a freshly broken piece of steel. The cold-bend
test was also very useful--a small bar was bent flat upon itself,
and the stretched fibers examined for any sign of break. Harder
stiff steels were supported at the ends and the amount of central
load they would support before fracture, or the amount of permanent
set they would acquire at a given load noted. Files were also used
to test the hardness of very hard steel.

These tests are still used to a considerable extent, especially in
works where the progress of an operation can be kept under close
watch in this way, the product being periodically examined by more
precise methods. The chief furnace-man, or melter, in a steel
plant, judges the course of the refining process by casting small
test ingots from time to time, breaking them and examining the
fracture. Cutlery manufacturers use the bend test to judge the
temper of blades. File testing of case-hardened parts is very common.

However there is need of standardized methods which depend less
upon the individual skill of the operator, and which will yield
results comparable to others made by different men at different
places and on different steels. Hence has grown up the art of testing

Next: Tensile Properties

Previous: Alloying Elements

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