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Steel Making

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Properties Of Steel


Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less
crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the
grain exhibited by a freshly broken piece of steel. The cold-bend
test was also very useful--a small bar was bent flat upon itself,
and the stretched fibers examined for any sign of break. Harder
stiff steels were supported at the ends and the amount of central
load they would support before fracture, or the amount of permanent
set they would acquire at a given load noted. Files were also used
to test the hardness of very hard steel.

These tests are still used to a considerable extent, especially in
works where the progress of an operation can be kept under close
watch in this way, the product being periodically examined by more
precise methods. The chief furnace-man, or melter, in a steel
plant, judges the course of the refining process by casting small
test ingots from time to time, breaking them and examining the
fracture. Cutlery manufacturers use the bend test to judge the
temper of blades. File testing of case-hardened parts is very common.

However there is need of standardized methods which depend less
upon the individual skill of the operator, and which will yield
results comparable to others made by different men at different
places and on different steels. Hence has grown up the art of testing

Next: Tensile Properties

Previous: Alloying Elements

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