These are sulphuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids. Symptoms of Poisoning by the Mineral Acids.--Acid taste in the mouth, with violent burning pain extending into the oesophagus and stomach, and commencing immediately on the poison being s... Read more of The Mineral Acids at Forensic Medicine.caInformational Site Network Informational
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Steel Making

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Properties Of Steel


Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less
crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the
grain exhibited by a freshly broken piece of steel. The cold-bend
test was also very useful--a small bar was bent flat upon itself,
and the stretched fibers examined for any sign of break. Harder
stiff steels were supported at the ends and the amount of central
load they would support before fracture, or the amount of permanent
set they would acquire at a given load noted. Files were also used
to test the hardness of very hard steel.

These tests are still used to a considerable extent, especially in
works where the progress of an operation can be kept under close
watch in this way, the product being periodically examined by more
precise methods. The chief furnace-man, or melter, in a steel
plant, judges the course of the refining process by casting small
test ingots from time to time, breaking them and examining the
fracture. Cutlery manufacturers use the bend test to judge the
temper of blades. File testing of case-hardened parts is very common.

However there is need of standardized methods which depend less
upon the individual skill of the operator, and which will yield
results comparable to others made by different men at different
places and on different steels. Hence has grown up the art of testing

Next: Tensile Properties

Previous: Alloying Elements

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