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Steel Making

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...



Properties Of Steel






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less
crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the
grain exhibited by a freshly broken piece of steel. The cold-bend
test was also very useful--a small bar was bent flat upon itself,
and the stretched fibers examined for any sign of break. Harder
stiff steels were supported at the ends and the amount of central
load they would support before fracture, or the amount of permanent
set they would acquire at a given load noted. Files were also used
to test the hardness of very hard steel.

These tests are still used to a considerable extent, especially in
works where the progress of an operation can be kept under close
watch in this way, the product being periodically examined by more
precise methods. The chief furnace-man, or melter, in a steel
plant, judges the course of the refining process by casting small
test ingots from time to time, breaking them and examining the
fracture. Cutlery manufacturers use the bend test to judge the
temper of blades. File testing of case-hardened parts is very common.

However there is need of standardized methods which depend less
upon the individual skill of the operator, and which will yield
results comparable to others made by different men at different
places and on different steels. Hence has grown up the art of testing
materials.





Next: Tensile Properties

Previous: Alloying Elements



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