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Steel Making

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Properties Of Steel


Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less
crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the
grain exhibited by a freshly broken piece of steel. The cold-bend
test was also very useful--a small bar was bent flat upon itself,
and the stretched fibers examined for any sign of break. Harder
stiff steels were supported at the ends and the amount of central
load they would support before fracture, or the amount of permanent
set they would acquire at a given load noted. Files were also used
to test the hardness of very hard steel.

These tests are still used to a considerable extent, especially in
works where the progress of an operation can be kept under close
watch in this way, the product being periodically examined by more
precise methods. The chief furnace-man, or melter, in a steel
plant, judges the course of the refining process by casting small
test ingots from time to time, breaking them and examining the
fracture. Cutlery manufacturers use the bend test to judge the
temper of blades. File testing of case-hardened parts is very common.

However there is need of standardized methods which depend less
upon the individual skill of the operator, and which will yield
results comparable to others made by different men at different
places and on different steels. Hence has grown up the art of testing

Next: Tensile Properties

Previous: Alloying Elements

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