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Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...



Properties Of Steel






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less
crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the
grain exhibited by a freshly broken piece of steel. The cold-bend
test was also very useful--a small bar was bent flat upon itself,
and the stretched fibers examined for any sign of break. Harder
stiff steels were supported at the ends and the amount of central
load they would support before fracture, or the amount of permanent
set they would acquire at a given load noted. Files were also used
to test the hardness of very hard steel.

These tests are still used to a considerable extent, especially in
works where the progress of an operation can be kept under close
watch in this way, the product being periodically examined by more
precise methods. The chief furnace-man, or melter, in a steel
plant, judges the course of the refining process by casting small
test ingots from time to time, breaking them and examining the
fracture. Cutlery manufacturers use the bend test to judge the
temper of blades. File testing of case-hardened parts is very common.

However there is need of standardized methods which depend less
upon the individual skill of the operator, and which will yield
results comparable to others made by different men at different
places and on different steels. Hence has grown up the art of testing
materials.





Next: Tensile Properties

Previous: Alloying Elements



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