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Steel Making

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Properties Of Steel


Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less
crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the
grain exhibited by a freshly broken piece of steel. The cold-bend
test was also very useful--a small bar was bent flat upon itself,
and the stretched fibers examined for any sign of break. Harder
stiff steels were supported at the ends and the amount of central
load they would support before fracture, or the amount of permanent
set they would acquire at a given load noted. Files were also used
to test the hardness of very hard steel.

These tests are still used to a considerable extent, especially in
works where the progress of an operation can be kept under close
watch in this way, the product being periodically examined by more
precise methods. The chief furnace-man, or melter, in a steel
plant, judges the course of the refining process by casting small
test ingots from time to time, breaking them and examining the
fracture. Cutlery manufacturers use the bend test to judge the
temper of blades. File testing of case-hardened parts is very common.

However there is need of standardized methods which depend less
upon the individual skill of the operator, and which will yield
results comparable to others made by different men at different
places and on different steels. Hence has grown up the art of testing

Next: Tensile Properties

Previous: Alloying Elements

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