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Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...



Phosphorus






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal from
the ore. It remains in the steel when made by the so-called acid
process, but it can be easily eliminated down to 0.06 per cent
in the basic process. In fact the discovery of the basic process
was necessary before the huge iron deposits of Belgium and the
Franco-German border could be used. These ores contain several
per cent phosphorus, and made a very brittle steel (cold short)
until basic furnaces were used. Basic furnaces allow the formation
of a slag high in lime, which takes practically all the phosphorus
out of the metal. Not only is the resulting metal usable, but the
slag makes a very excellent fertilizer, and is in good demand.





Next: Silicon

Previous: Sulphur



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