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Steel Making

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Pickling The Forgings


The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either niter
cake or sulphuric acid and water at a temperature of 170 deg.F., and
using a solution of about 25 per cent. The solution was maintained
at a constant point by taking hydrometer readings two or three
times a day, maintaining a reading of about 1.175. Sixty forked or
one hundred single rods were placed in wooden racks and immersed
in a lead-lined vat 30 by 30 by 5 ft. long. The rack was lowered
or lifted by means of an air hoist and the rods were allowed to
stay in solution from 1/2 to 1 hr., depending on the amount of
scale. The rods were then swung and lowered in the rack into running
hot water until all trace of the acid was removed.

The rod was finally subjected to Brinell test. This shows whether
or not the rod has been heat-treated to the proper hardness. If
the rods did not read between 241 and 277, they were re-treated
until the proper hardness is obtained.

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