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Steel Making

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Pickling The Forgings


The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either niter
cake or sulphuric acid and water at a temperature of 170 deg.F., and
using a solution of about 25 per cent. The solution was maintained
at a constant point by taking hydrometer readings two or three
times a day, maintaining a reading of about 1.175. Sixty forked or
one hundred single rods were placed in wooden racks and immersed
in a lead-lined vat 30 by 30 by 5 ft. long. The rack was lowered
or lifted by means of an air hoist and the rods were allowed to
stay in solution from 1/2 to 1 hr., depending on the amount of
scale. The rods were then swung and lowered in the rack into running
hot water until all trace of the acid was removed.

The rod was finally subjected to Brinell test. This shows whether
or not the rod has been heat-treated to the proper hardness. If
the rods did not read between 241 and 277, they were re-treated
until the proper hardness is obtained.

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