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Steel Making

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Pickling The Forgings


The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either niter
cake or sulphuric acid and water at a temperature of 170 deg.F., and
using a solution of about 25 per cent. The solution was maintained
at a constant point by taking hydrometer readings two or three
times a day, maintaining a reading of about 1.175. Sixty forked or
one hundred single rods were placed in wooden racks and immersed
in a lead-lined vat 30 by 30 by 5 ft. long. The rack was lowered
or lifted by means of an air hoist and the rods were allowed to
stay in solution from 1/2 to 1 hr., depending on the amount of
scale. The rods were then swung and lowered in the rack into running
hot water until all trace of the acid was removed.

The rod was finally subjected to Brinell test. This shows whether
or not the rod has been heat-treated to the proper hardness. If
the rods did not read between 241 and 277, they were re-treated
until the proper hardness is obtained.

Next: Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry

Previous: Liberty Motor Connecting Rods

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