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Steel Making

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Pickling The Forgings


The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either niter
cake or sulphuric acid and water at a temperature of 170 deg.F., and
using a solution of about 25 per cent. The solution was maintained
at a constant point by taking hydrometer readings two or three
times a day, maintaining a reading of about 1.175. Sixty forked or
one hundred single rods were placed in wooden racks and immersed
in a lead-lined vat 30 by 30 by 5 ft. long. The rack was lowered
or lifted by means of an air hoist and the rods were allowed to
stay in solution from 1/2 to 1 hr., depending on the amount of
scale. The rods were then swung and lowered in the rack into running
hot water until all trace of the acid was removed.

The rod was finally subjected to Brinell test. This shows whether
or not the rod has been heat-treated to the proper hardness. If
the rods did not read between 241 and 277, they were re-treated
until the proper hardness is obtained.

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