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Steel Making

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Pickling The Forgings


The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either niter
cake or sulphuric acid and water at a temperature of 170 deg.F., and
using a solution of about 25 per cent. The solution was maintained
at a constant point by taking hydrometer readings two or three
times a day, maintaining a reading of about 1.175. Sixty forked or
one hundred single rods were placed in wooden racks and immersed
in a lead-lined vat 30 by 30 by 5 ft. long. The rack was lowered
or lifted by means of an air hoist and the rods were allowed to
stay in solution from 1/2 to 1 hr., depending on the amount of
scale. The rods were then swung and lowered in the rack into running
hot water until all trace of the acid was removed.

The rod was finally subjected to Brinell test. This shows whether
or not the rod has been heat-treated to the proper hardness. If
the rods did not read between 241 and 277, they were re-treated
until the proper hardness is obtained.

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