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Steel Making

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating


Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thickness
of 0.0005 in. Less than this does not give a continuous coating.
The plating bath used has a temperature of 170 deg.F. A voltage of
4.1 is to be maintained across the terminals. Regions which are
to be hardened can be kept free from copper by coating them with
paraffin before they enter the plating tank. The operation is as

No. Contents of bath Purpose
1 Gasoline To remove grease
2 Sawdust To dry
3 Warm potassium hydroxide solution To remove grease and dirt
4 Warm water To wash
5 Warm sulphuric acid solution To acid clean
6 Warm water To wash
7 Cold water Additional wash
8 Cold potassium cyanide solution Cleanser
9 Cold water To wash
10 Electric cleaner, warm sodium Cleanser to give good
hydroxide case-iron anode plating surface
11 Copper plating bath of copper Plating bath
sulphate and potassium cyanide
solution warm

There are also other methods of preventing case-hardening, one
being to paint the surface with a special compound prepared for
this purpose. In some cases a coating of plastic asbestos is used
while in others thin sheet asbestos is wired around the part to
be kept soft.

Next: Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening

Previous: Carburizing By Gas

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