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Steel Making

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating


Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thickness
of 0.0005 in. Less than this does not give a continuous coating.
The plating bath used has a temperature of 170 deg.F. A voltage of
4.1 is to be maintained across the terminals. Regions which are
to be hardened can be kept free from copper by coating them with
paraffin before they enter the plating tank. The operation is as

No. Contents of bath Purpose
1 Gasoline To remove grease
2 Sawdust To dry
3 Warm potassium hydroxide solution To remove grease and dirt
4 Warm water To wash
5 Warm sulphuric acid solution To acid clean
6 Warm water To wash
7 Cold water Additional wash
8 Cold potassium cyanide solution Cleanser
9 Cold water To wash
10 Electric cleaner, warm sodium Cleanser to give good
hydroxide case-iron anode plating surface
11 Copper plating bath of copper Plating bath
sulphate and potassium cyanide
solution warm

There are also other methods of preventing case-hardening, one
being to paint the surface with a special compound prepared for
this purpose. In some cases a coating of plastic asbestos is used
while in others thin sheet asbestos is wired around the part to
be kept soft.

Next: Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening

Previous: Carburizing By Gas

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