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Steel Making

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating


Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thickness
of 0.0005 in. Less than this does not give a continuous coating.
The plating bath used has a temperature of 170 deg.F. A voltage of
4.1 is to be maintained across the terminals. Regions which are
to be hardened can be kept free from copper by coating them with
paraffin before they enter the plating tank. The operation is as

No. Contents of bath Purpose
1 Gasoline To remove grease
2 Sawdust To dry
3 Warm potassium hydroxide solution To remove grease and dirt
4 Warm water To wash
5 Warm sulphuric acid solution To acid clean
6 Warm water To wash
7 Cold water Additional wash
8 Cold potassium cyanide solution Cleanser
9 Cold water To wash
10 Electric cleaner, warm sodium Cleanser to give good
hydroxide case-iron anode plating surface
11 Copper plating bath of copper Plating bath
sulphate and potassium cyanide
solution warm

There are also other methods of preventing case-hardening, one
being to paint the surface with a special compound prepared for
this purpose. In some cases a coating of plastic asbestos is used
while in others thin sheet asbestos is wired around the part to
be kept soft.

Next: Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening

Previous: Carburizing By Gas

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