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Steel Making

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating


Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thickness
of 0.0005 in. Less than this does not give a continuous coating.
The plating bath used has a temperature of 170 deg.F. A voltage of
4.1 is to be maintained across the terminals. Regions which are
to be hardened can be kept free from copper by coating them with
paraffin before they enter the plating tank. The operation is as

No. Contents of bath Purpose
1 Gasoline To remove grease
2 Sawdust To dry
3 Warm potassium hydroxide solution To remove grease and dirt
4 Warm water To wash
5 Warm sulphuric acid solution To acid clean
6 Warm water To wash
7 Cold water Additional wash
8 Cold potassium cyanide solution Cleanser
9 Cold water To wash
10 Electric cleaner, warm sodium Cleanser to give good
hydroxide case-iron anode plating surface
11 Copper plating bath of copper Plating bath
sulphate and potassium cyanide
solution warm

There are also other methods of preventing case-hardening, one
being to paint the surface with a special compound prepared for
this purpose. In some cases a coating of plastic asbestos is used
while in others thin sheet asbestos is wired around the part to
be kept soft.

Next: Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening

Previous: Carburizing By Gas

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