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Steel Making

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating


Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thickness
of 0.0005 in. Less than this does not give a continuous coating.
The plating bath used has a temperature of 170 deg.F. A voltage of
4.1 is to be maintained across the terminals. Regions which are
to be hardened can be kept free from copper by coating them with
paraffin before they enter the plating tank. The operation is as

No. Contents of bath Purpose
1 Gasoline To remove grease
2 Sawdust To dry
3 Warm potassium hydroxide solution To remove grease and dirt
4 Warm water To wash
5 Warm sulphuric acid solution To acid clean
6 Warm water To wash
7 Cold water Additional wash
8 Cold potassium cyanide solution Cleanser
9 Cold water To wash
10 Electric cleaner, warm sodium Cleanser to give good
hydroxide case-iron anode plating surface
11 Copper plating bath of copper Plating bath
sulphate and potassium cyanide
solution warm

There are also other methods of preventing case-hardening, one
being to paint the surface with a special compound prepared for
this purpose. In some cases a coating of plastic asbestos is used
while in others thin sheet asbestos is wired around the part to
be kept soft.

Next: Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening

Previous: Carburizing By Gas

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