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Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Annealing Method


Forgings which are too hard to machine are put
in pots with a little charcoal to cause a reducing atmosphere and
to prevent scale. The covers are then luted on and the pots placed
in the furnace. Carbon steel from 15 to 25 points is annealed at
1,600 deg.F. Nickel steel of the same carbon and containing in addition
3-1/2 per cent nickel is annealed at 1,450 deg.F. When the pots are
heated through, they are rolled to the yard and allowed to cool.
This method of annealing gives the best hardness for quick machining.

The requirements in the machine operations are very rigid and, in
spite of great care and probably the finest equipment of special
machines in the world, a small percentage of the product fails
to pass inspection during or at the completion of the machine
operations. These pieces, however, are not a loss, for they play
an important part in the hardening process, indicating as they do
the exact depth of penetration of the carburizing material and
the condition of both case and core.

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