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Steel Making

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Annealing Method


Forgings which are too hard to machine are put
in pots with a little charcoal to cause a reducing atmosphere and
to prevent scale. The covers are then luted on and the pots placed
in the furnace. Carbon steel from 15 to 25 points is annealed at
1,600 deg.F. Nickel steel of the same carbon and containing in addition
3-1/2 per cent nickel is annealed at 1,450 deg.F. When the pots are
heated through, they are rolled to the yard and allowed to cool.
This method of annealing gives the best hardness for quick machining.

The requirements in the machine operations are very rigid and, in
spite of great care and probably the finest equipment of special
machines in the world, a small percentage of the product fails
to pass inspection during or at the completion of the machine
operations. These pieces, however, are not a loss, for they play
an important part in the hardening process, indicating as they do
the exact depth of penetration of the carburizing material and
the condition of both case and core.

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