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Steel Making

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...



Annealing Method






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Forgings which are too hard to machine are put
in pots with a little charcoal to cause a reducing atmosphere and
to prevent scale. The covers are then luted on and the pots placed
in the furnace. Carbon steel from 15 to 25 points is annealed at
1,600 deg.F. Nickel steel of the same carbon and containing in addition
3-1/2 per cent nickel is annealed at 1,450 deg.F. When the pots are
heated through, they are rolled to the yard and allowed to cool.
This method of annealing gives the best hardness for quick machining.

The requirements in the machine operations are very rigid and, in
spite of great care and probably the finest equipment of special
machines in the world, a small percentage of the product fails
to pass inspection during or at the completion of the machine
operations. These pieces, however, are not a loss, for they play
an important part in the hardening process, indicating as they do
the exact depth of penetration of the carburizing material and
the condition of both case and core.





Next: Heat-treating Department

Previous: Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production



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