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Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...



Annealing Method






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Forgings which are too hard to machine are put
in pots with a little charcoal to cause a reducing atmosphere and
to prevent scale. The covers are then luted on and the pots placed
in the furnace. Carbon steel from 15 to 25 points is annealed at
1,600 deg.F. Nickel steel of the same carbon and containing in addition
3-1/2 per cent nickel is annealed at 1,450 deg.F. When the pots are
heated through, they are rolled to the yard and allowed to cool.
This method of annealing gives the best hardness for quick machining.

The requirements in the machine operations are very rigid and, in
spite of great care and probably the finest equipment of special
machines in the world, a small percentage of the product fails
to pass inspection during or at the completion of the machine
operations. These pieces, however, are not a loss, for they play
an important part in the hardening process, indicating as they do
the exact depth of penetration of the carburizing material and
the condition of both case and core.





Next: Heat-treating Department

Previous: Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production



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