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Steel Making

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...



Annealing Method






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Forgings which are too hard to machine are put
in pots with a little charcoal to cause a reducing atmosphere and
to prevent scale. The covers are then luted on and the pots placed
in the furnace. Carbon steel from 15 to 25 points is annealed at
1,600 deg.F. Nickel steel of the same carbon and containing in addition
3-1/2 per cent nickel is annealed at 1,450 deg.F. When the pots are
heated through, they are rolled to the yard and allowed to cool.
This method of annealing gives the best hardness for quick machining.

The requirements in the machine operations are very rigid and, in
spite of great care and probably the finest equipment of special
machines in the world, a small percentage of the product fails
to pass inspection during or at the completion of the machine
operations. These pieces, however, are not a loss, for they play
an important part in the hardening process, indicating as they do
the exact depth of penetration of the carburizing material and
the condition of both case and core.





Next: Heat-treating Department

Previous: Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production



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