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Steel Making

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...



Annealing Method






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

Forgings which are too hard to machine are put
in pots with a little charcoal to cause a reducing atmosphere and
to prevent scale. The covers are then luted on and the pots placed
in the furnace. Carbon steel from 15 to 25 points is annealed at
1,600 deg.F. Nickel steel of the same carbon and containing in addition
3-1/2 per cent nickel is annealed at 1,450 deg.F. When the pots are
heated through, they are rolled to the yard and allowed to cool.
This method of annealing gives the best hardness for quick machining.

The requirements in the machine operations are very rigid and, in
spite of great care and probably the finest equipment of special
machines in the world, a small percentage of the product fails
to pass inspection during or at the completion of the machine
operations. These pieces, however, are not a loss, for they play
an important part in the hardening process, indicating as they do
the exact depth of penetration of the carburizing material and
the condition of both case and core.





Next: Heat-treating Department

Previous: Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production



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