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Steel Making

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal


Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermocouples
as in Fig. 132. Usually the pyrometer is portable, as shown in
this case, which is a Brown. Other methods of mounting for this
kind of work arc shown in Figs. 133 and 134. The bent mountings
are designed for molten metal, such as brass or copper and are
supplied with either clay, graphite or carborundum tubes. Fifteen
feet of connecting wire is usually supplied.

The angle mountings, Fig. 134, are recommended for baths such as
lead or cyanide. The horizontal arm is usually about 14 in. long,
and the whole mounting is easily taken apart making replacements
very easy. Details of the thermo-couple shown in Fig. 132 are given
in Fig. 135. This is a straight rod with a protector for the hand
of the operator. The lag in such couples is less than one minute.
These are Englehard mountings.

Next: Protectors For Thermo-couples

Previous: An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer

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