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Steel Making

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal


Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermocouples
as in Fig. 132. Usually the pyrometer is portable, as shown in
this case, which is a Brown. Other methods of mounting for this
kind of work arc shown in Figs. 133 and 134. The bent mountings
are designed for molten metal, such as brass or copper and are
supplied with either clay, graphite or carborundum tubes. Fifteen
feet of connecting wire is usually supplied.

The angle mountings, Fig. 134, are recommended for baths such as
lead or cyanide. The horizontal arm is usually about 14 in. long,
and the whole mounting is easily taken apart making replacements
very easy. Details of the thermo-couple shown in Fig. 132 are given
in Fig. 135. This is a straight rod with a protector for the hand
of the operator. The lag in such couples is less than one minute.
These are Englehard mountings.

Next: Protectors For Thermo-couples

Previous: An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer

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