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Steel Making

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Short Method Of Treatment


In the new method, the packed pots are
run into the case-hardening furnaces, which are heated to 1,600 deg.F.
On the insertion of the cold pots, the temperature naturally falls.
The amount of this fall is dependent upon a number of variables,
but it averages nearly 500 deg.F. as shown in the pyrometer chart,
Fig. 61. The work and furnace must be brought to 1,600 deg.F. Within
2-1/2 hr.; otherwise, a longer time will be necessary to obtain
the desired depth of case. On this work, the depth of case required
is designated in thousandths, and on crown gears, the depth in
0.028 in. Having brought the work to a temperature of 1,600 deg.F.
the depth of case mentioned can be obtained in about 5-1/2 hr. by
maintaining this temperature.

As stated before, at the top of each pot are several test pieces
consisting of a whole scrap gear and several sections. After the
pots have been heated at 1,600 deg.F. for about 5-1/4 hr., they are
removed, and a scrap-section test-piece is quenched direct from
the pot in mineral oil at not more than 100 deg.F. The end of a tooth
of this is then ground and etched to ascertain the depth of case.
As these test pieces are of exactly the same cross-section as the
gears themselves, the carburizing action is similar. When the depth
of case has been found from the etched test pieces to be satisfactory,
the pots are removed. The iron ball then is dropped into the tube
to seal the hole in the bottom of the pot; the cover and the tube
are removed, and the gears quenched direct from the pot in mineral
oil, which is kept at a temperature not higher than 100 deg.F.

Next: The Effect

Previous: The Packing Department

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