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Steel Making

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Short Method Of Treatment


In the new method, the packed pots are
run into the case-hardening furnaces, which are heated to 1,600 deg.F.
On the insertion of the cold pots, the temperature naturally falls.
The amount of this fall is dependent upon a number of variables,
but it averages nearly 500 deg.F. as shown in the pyrometer chart,
Fig. 61. The work and furnace must be brought to 1,600 deg.F. Within
2-1/2 hr.; otherwise, a longer time will be necessary to obtain
the desired depth of case. On this work, the depth of case required
is designated in thousandths, and on crown gears, the depth in
0.028 in. Having brought the work to a temperature of 1,600 deg.F.
the depth of case mentioned can be obtained in about 5-1/2 hr. by
maintaining this temperature.

As stated before, at the top of each pot are several test pieces
consisting of a whole scrap gear and several sections. After the
pots have been heated at 1,600 deg.F. for about 5-1/4 hr., they are
removed, and a scrap-section test-piece is quenched direct from
the pot in mineral oil at not more than 100 deg.F. The end of a tooth
of this is then ground and etched to ascertain the depth of case.
As these test pieces are of exactly the same cross-section as the
gears themselves, the carburizing action is similar. When the depth
of case has been found from the etched test pieces to be satisfactory,
the pots are removed. The iron ball then is dropped into the tube
to seal the hole in the bottom of the pot; the cover and the tube
are removed, and the gears quenched direct from the pot in mineral
oil, which is kept at a temperature not higher than 100 deg.F.

Next: The Effect

Previous: The Packing Department

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