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Steel Making

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Short Method Of Treatment


In the new method, the packed pots are
run into the case-hardening furnaces, which are heated to 1,600 deg.F.
On the insertion of the cold pots, the temperature naturally falls.
The amount of this fall is dependent upon a number of variables,
but it averages nearly 500 deg.F. as shown in the pyrometer chart,
Fig. 61. The work and furnace must be brought to 1,600 deg.F. Within
2-1/2 hr.; otherwise, a longer time will be necessary to obtain
the desired depth of case. On this work, the depth of case required
is designated in thousandths, and on crown gears, the depth in
0.028 in. Having brought the work to a temperature of 1,600 deg.F.
the depth of case mentioned can be obtained in about 5-1/2 hr. by
maintaining this temperature.

As stated before, at the top of each pot are several test pieces
consisting of a whole scrap gear and several sections. After the
pots have been heated at 1,600 deg.F. for about 5-1/4 hr., they are
removed, and a scrap-section test-piece is quenched direct from
the pot in mineral oil at not more than 100 deg.F. The end of a tooth
of this is then ground and etched to ascertain the depth of case.
As these test pieces are of exactly the same cross-section as the
gears themselves, the carburizing action is similar. When the depth
of case has been found from the etched test pieces to be satisfactory,
the pots are removed. The iron ball then is dropped into the tube
to seal the hole in the bottom of the pot; the cover and the tube
are removed, and the gears quenched direct from the pot in mineral
oil, which is kept at a temperature not higher than 100 deg.F.

Next: The Effect

Previous: The Packing Department

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