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Steel Making

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Short Method Of Treatment


In the new method, the packed pots are
run into the case-hardening furnaces, which are heated to 1,600 deg.F.
On the insertion of the cold pots, the temperature naturally falls.
The amount of this fall is dependent upon a number of variables,
but it averages nearly 500 deg.F. as shown in the pyrometer chart,
Fig. 61. The work and furnace must be brought to 1,600 deg.F. Within
2-1/2 hr.; otherwise, a longer time will be necessary to obtain
the desired depth of case. On this work, the depth of case required
is designated in thousandths, and on crown gears, the depth in
0.028 in. Having brought the work to a temperature of 1,600 deg.F.
the depth of case mentioned can be obtained in about 5-1/2 hr. by
maintaining this temperature.

As stated before, at the top of each pot are several test pieces
consisting of a whole scrap gear and several sections. After the
pots have been heated at 1,600 deg.F. for about 5-1/4 hr., they are
removed, and a scrap-section test-piece is quenched direct from
the pot in mineral oil at not more than 100 deg.F. The end of a tooth
of this is then ground and etched to ascertain the depth of case.
As these test pieces are of exactly the same cross-section as the
gears themselves, the carburizing action is similar. When the depth
of case has been found from the etched test pieces to be satisfactory,
the pots are removed. The iron ball then is dropped into the tube
to seal the hole in the bottom of the pot; the cover and the tube
are removed, and the gears quenched direct from the pot in mineral
oil, which is kept at a temperature not higher than 100 deg.F.

Next: The Effect

Previous: The Packing Department

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