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Steel Making

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Short Method Of Treatment


In the new method, the packed pots are
run into the case-hardening furnaces, which are heated to 1,600 deg.F.
On the insertion of the cold pots, the temperature naturally falls.
The amount of this fall is dependent upon a number of variables,
but it averages nearly 500 deg.F. as shown in the pyrometer chart,
Fig. 61. The work and furnace must be brought to 1,600 deg.F. Within
2-1/2 hr.; otherwise, a longer time will be necessary to obtain
the desired depth of case. On this work, the depth of case required
is designated in thousandths, and on crown gears, the depth in
0.028 in. Having brought the work to a temperature of 1,600 deg.F.
the depth of case mentioned can be obtained in about 5-1/2 hr. by
maintaining this temperature.

As stated before, at the top of each pot are several test pieces
consisting of a whole scrap gear and several sections. After the
pots have been heated at 1,600 deg.F. for about 5-1/4 hr., they are
removed, and a scrap-section test-piece is quenched direct from
the pot in mineral oil at not more than 100 deg.F. The end of a tooth
of this is then ground and etched to ascertain the depth of case.
As these test pieces are of exactly the same cross-section as the
gears themselves, the carburizing action is similar. When the depth
of case has been found from the etched test pieces to be satisfactory,
the pots are removed. The iron ball then is dropped into the tube
to seal the hole in the bottom of the pot; the cover and the tube
are removed, and the gears quenched direct from the pot in mineral
oil, which is kept at a temperature not higher than 100 deg.F.

Next: The Effect

Previous: The Packing Department

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