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Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Short Method Of Treatment


In the new method, the packed pots are
run into the case-hardening furnaces, which are heated to 1,600 deg.F.
On the insertion of the cold pots, the temperature naturally falls.
The amount of this fall is dependent upon a number of variables,
but it averages nearly 500 deg.F. as shown in the pyrometer chart,
Fig. 61. The work and furnace must be brought to 1,600 deg.F. Within
2-1/2 hr.; otherwise, a longer time will be necessary to obtain
the desired depth of case. On this work, the depth of case required
is designated in thousandths, and on crown gears, the depth in
0.028 in. Having brought the work to a temperature of 1,600 deg.F.
the depth of case mentioned can be obtained in about 5-1/2 hr. by
maintaining this temperature.

As stated before, at the top of each pot are several test pieces
consisting of a whole scrap gear and several sections. After the
pots have been heated at 1,600 deg.F. for about 5-1/4 hr., they are
removed, and a scrap-section test-piece is quenched direct from
the pot in mineral oil at not more than 100 deg.F. The end of a tooth
of this is then ground and etched to ascertain the depth of case.
As these test pieces are of exactly the same cross-section as the
gears themselves, the carburizing action is similar. When the depth
of case has been found from the etched test pieces to be satisfactory,
the pots are removed. The iron ball then is dropped into the tube
to seal the hole in the bottom of the pot; the cover and the tube
are removed, and the gears quenched direct from the pot in mineral
oil, which is kept at a temperature not higher than 100 deg.F.

Next: The Effect

Previous: The Packing Department

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