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Steel Making

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Short Method Of Treatment


In the new method, the packed pots are
run into the case-hardening furnaces, which are heated to 1,600 deg.F.
On the insertion of the cold pots, the temperature naturally falls.
The amount of this fall is dependent upon a number of variables,
but it averages nearly 500 deg.F. as shown in the pyrometer chart,
Fig. 61. The work and furnace must be brought to 1,600 deg.F. Within
2-1/2 hr.; otherwise, a longer time will be necessary to obtain
the desired depth of case. On this work, the depth of case required
is designated in thousandths, and on crown gears, the depth in
0.028 in. Having brought the work to a temperature of 1,600 deg.F.
the depth of case mentioned can be obtained in about 5-1/2 hr. by
maintaining this temperature.

As stated before, at the top of each pot are several test pieces
consisting of a whole scrap gear and several sections. After the
pots have been heated at 1,600 deg.F. for about 5-1/4 hr., they are
removed, and a scrap-section test-piece is quenched direct from
the pot in mineral oil at not more than 100 deg.F. The end of a tooth
of this is then ground and etched to ascertain the depth of case.
As these test pieces are of exactly the same cross-section as the
gears themselves, the carburizing action is similar. When the depth
of case has been found from the etched test pieces to be satisfactory,
the pots are removed. The iron ball then is dropped into the tube
to seal the hole in the bottom of the pot; the cover and the tube
are removed, and the gears quenched direct from the pot in mineral
oil, which is kept at a temperature not higher than 100 deg.F.

Next: The Effect

Previous: The Packing Department

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