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Steel Making

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Short Method Of Treatment


In the new method, the packed pots are
run into the case-hardening furnaces, which are heated to 1,600 deg.F.
On the insertion of the cold pots, the temperature naturally falls.
The amount of this fall is dependent upon a number of variables,
but it averages nearly 500 deg.F. as shown in the pyrometer chart,
Fig. 61. The work and furnace must be brought to 1,600 deg.F. Within
2-1/2 hr.; otherwise, a longer time will be necessary to obtain
the desired depth of case. On this work, the depth of case required
is designated in thousandths, and on crown gears, the depth in
0.028 in. Having brought the work to a temperature of 1,600 deg.F.
the depth of case mentioned can be obtained in about 5-1/2 hr. by
maintaining this temperature.

As stated before, at the top of each pot are several test pieces
consisting of a whole scrap gear and several sections. After the
pots have been heated at 1,600 deg.F. for about 5-1/4 hr., they are
removed, and a scrap-section test-piece is quenched direct from
the pot in mineral oil at not more than 100 deg.F. The end of a tooth
of this is then ground and etched to ascertain the depth of case.
As these test pieces are of exactly the same cross-section as the
gears themselves, the carburizing action is similar. When the depth
of case has been found from the etched test pieces to be satisfactory,
the pots are removed. The iron ball then is dropped into the tube
to seal the hole in the bottom of the pot; the cover and the tube
are removed, and the gears quenched direct from the pot in mineral
oil, which is kept at a temperature not higher than 100 deg.F.

Next: The Effect

Previous: The Packing Department

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