BY JAMES BUCKHAM One day, when the Indian boy Waukewa was hunting along the mountain-side, he found a young eagle with a broken wing, lying at the base of a cliff. The bird had fallen from an aerie on a ledge high above, and being too y... Read more of Waukewa's Eagle at Children Stories.caInformational Site Network Informational
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Steel Making

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Short Method Of Treatment


In the new method, the packed pots are
run into the case-hardening furnaces, which are heated to 1,600 deg.F.
On the insertion of the cold pots, the temperature naturally falls.
The amount of this fall is dependent upon a number of variables,
but it averages nearly 500 deg.F. as shown in the pyrometer chart,
Fig. 61. The work and furnace must be brought to 1,600 deg.F. Within
2-1/2 hr.; otherwise, a longer time will be necessary to obtain
the desired depth of case. On this work, the depth of case required
is designated in thousandths, and on crown gears, the depth in
0.028 in. Having brought the work to a temperature of 1,600 deg.F.
the depth of case mentioned can be obtained in about 5-1/2 hr. by
maintaining this temperature.

As stated before, at the top of each pot are several test pieces
consisting of a whole scrap gear and several sections. After the
pots have been heated at 1,600 deg.F. for about 5-1/4 hr., they are
removed, and a scrap-section test-piece is quenched direct from
the pot in mineral oil at not more than 100 deg.F. The end of a tooth
of this is then ground and etched to ascertain the depth of case.
As these test pieces are of exactly the same cross-section as the
gears themselves, the carburizing action is similar. When the depth
of case has been found from the etched test pieces to be satisfactory,
the pots are removed. The iron ball then is dropped into the tube
to seal the hole in the bottom of the pot; the cover and the tube
are removed, and the gears quenched direct from the pot in mineral
oil, which is kept at a temperature not higher than 100 deg.F.

Next: The Effect

Previous: The Packing Department

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