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Steel Making

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Short Method Of Treatment


In the new method, the packed pots are
run into the case-hardening furnaces, which are heated to 1,600 deg.F.
On the insertion of the cold pots, the temperature naturally falls.
The amount of this fall is dependent upon a number of variables,
but it averages nearly 500 deg.F. as shown in the pyrometer chart,
Fig. 61. The work and furnace must be brought to 1,600 deg.F. Within
2-1/2 hr.; otherwise, a longer time will be necessary to obtain
the desired depth of case. On this work, the depth of case required
is designated in thousandths, and on crown gears, the depth in
0.028 in. Having brought the work to a temperature of 1,600 deg.F.
the depth of case mentioned can be obtained in about 5-1/2 hr. by
maintaining this temperature.

As stated before, at the top of each pot are several test pieces
consisting of a whole scrap gear and several sections. After the
pots have been heated at 1,600 deg.F. for about 5-1/4 hr., they are
removed, and a scrap-section test-piece is quenched direct from
the pot in mineral oil at not more than 100 deg.F. The end of a tooth
of this is then ground and etched to ascertain the depth of case.
As these test pieces are of exactly the same cross-section as the
gears themselves, the carburizing action is similar. When the depth
of case has been found from the etched test pieces to be satisfactory,
the pots are removed. The iron ball then is dropped into the tube
to seal the hole in the bottom of the pot; the cover and the tube
are removed, and the gears quenched direct from the pot in mineral
oil, which is kept at a temperature not higher than 100 deg.F.

Next: The Effect

Previous: The Packing Department

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