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Steel Making

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Short Method Of Treatment


In the new method, the packed pots are
run into the case-hardening furnaces, which are heated to 1,600 deg.F.
On the insertion of the cold pots, the temperature naturally falls.
The amount of this fall is dependent upon a number of variables,
but it averages nearly 500 deg.F. as shown in the pyrometer chart,
Fig. 61. The work and furnace must be brought to 1,600 deg.F. Within
2-1/2 hr.; otherwise, a longer time will be necessary to obtain
the desired depth of case. On this work, the depth of case required
is designated in thousandths, and on crown gears, the depth in
0.028 in. Having brought the work to a temperature of 1,600 deg.F.
the depth of case mentioned can be obtained in about 5-1/2 hr. by
maintaining this temperature.

As stated before, at the top of each pot are several test pieces
consisting of a whole scrap gear and several sections. After the
pots have been heated at 1,600 deg.F. for about 5-1/4 hr., they are
removed, and a scrap-section test-piece is quenched direct from
the pot in mineral oil at not more than 100 deg.F. The end of a tooth
of this is then ground and etched to ascertain the depth of case.
As these test pieces are of exactly the same cross-section as the
gears themselves, the carburizing action is similar. When the depth
of case has been found from the etched test pieces to be satisfactory,
the pots are removed. The iron ball then is dropped into the tube
to seal the hole in the bottom of the pot; the cover and the tube
are removed, and the gears quenched direct from the pot in mineral
oil, which is kept at a temperature not higher than 100 deg.F.

Next: The Effect

Previous: The Packing Department

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