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Steel Making

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Short Method Of Treatment


In the new method, the packed pots are
run into the case-hardening furnaces, which are heated to 1,600 deg.F.
On the insertion of the cold pots, the temperature naturally falls.
The amount of this fall is dependent upon a number of variables,
but it averages nearly 500 deg.F. as shown in the pyrometer chart,
Fig. 61. The work and furnace must be brought to 1,600 deg.F. Within
2-1/2 hr.; otherwise, a longer time will be necessary to obtain
the desired depth of case. On this work, the depth of case required
is designated in thousandths, and on crown gears, the depth in
0.028 in. Having brought the work to a temperature of 1,600 deg.F.
the depth of case mentioned can be obtained in about 5-1/2 hr. by
maintaining this temperature.

As stated before, at the top of each pot are several test pieces
consisting of a whole scrap gear and several sections. After the
pots have been heated at 1,600 deg.F. for about 5-1/4 hr., they are
removed, and a scrap-section test-piece is quenched direct from
the pot in mineral oil at not more than 100 deg.F. The end of a tooth
of this is then ground and etched to ascertain the depth of case.
As these test pieces are of exactly the same cross-section as the
gears themselves, the carburizing action is similar. When the depth
of case has been found from the etched test pieces to be satisfactory,
the pots are removed. The iron ball then is dropped into the tube
to seal the hole in the bottom of the pot; the cover and the tube
are removed, and the gears quenched direct from the pot in mineral
oil, which is kept at a temperature not higher than 100 deg.F.

Next: The Effect

Previous: The Packing Department

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