Informational Site NetworkInformational Site Network
   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...



SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an essential
constituent of nearly all the rocks of the earth. It is similar to
carbon in many of its chemical properties; for instance it burns
very readily in oxygen, and consequently native silicon is unknown--it
is always found in combination with one or more other elements.
When it bums, each atom of silicon unites with two atoms of oxygen
to form a compound known to chemists as silica (SiO2), and to the
small boy as sand and agate.

Iron ore (an oxide of iron) contains more or less sand and dirt
mixed in it when it is mined, and not only the iron oxide but also
some of the silicon oxide is robbed of its oxygen by the smelting
process. Pig iron--the product of the blast furnace--therefore
contains from 1 to 3 per cent of silicon, and some silicon remains
in the metal after it has been purified and converted into steel.

However, silicon, as noted above, burns very readily in oxygen,
and this property is of good use in steel making. At the end of
the steel-making process the metal contains more or less oxygen,
which must be removed. This is sometimes done (especially in the
so-called acid process) by adding a small amount of silicon to
the hot metal just before it leaves the furnace, and stirring it
in. It thereupon abstracts oxygen from the metal wherever it finds
it, changing to silica (SiO2) which rises and floats on the surface
of the cleaned metal. Most of the silicon remaining in the metal
is an excess over that which is required to remove the dangerous
oxygen, and the final analysis of many steels show enough silicon
(from 0.20 to 0.40) to make sure that this step in the manufacture
has been properly done.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Phosphorus

Add to Add to Reddit Add to Digg Add to Add to Google Add to Twitter Add to Stumble Upon
Add to Informational Site Network

Viewed 6101