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Steel Making

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...



Silicon






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an essential
constituent of nearly all the rocks of the earth. It is similar to
carbon in many of its chemical properties; for instance it burns
very readily in oxygen, and consequently native silicon is unknown--it
is always found in combination with one or more other elements.
When it bums, each atom of silicon unites with two atoms of oxygen
to form a compound known to chemists as silica (SiO2), and to the
small boy as sand and agate.

Iron ore (an oxide of iron) contains more or less sand and dirt
mixed in it when it is mined, and not only the iron oxide but also
some of the silicon oxide is robbed of its oxygen by the smelting
process. Pig iron--the product of the blast furnace--therefore
contains from 1 to 3 per cent of silicon, and some silicon remains
in the metal after it has been purified and converted into steel.

However, silicon, as noted above, burns very readily in oxygen,
and this property is of good use in steel making. At the end of
the steel-making process the metal contains more or less oxygen,
which must be removed. This is sometimes done (especially in the
so-called acid process) by adding a small amount of silicon to
the hot metal just before it leaves the furnace, and stirring it
in. It thereupon abstracts oxygen from the metal wherever it finds
it, changing to silica (SiO2) which rises and floats on the surface
of the cleaned metal. Most of the silicon remaining in the metal
is an excess over that which is required to remove the dangerous
oxygen, and the final analysis of many steels show enough silicon
(from 0.20 to 0.40) to make sure that this step in the manufacture
has been properly done.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Phosphorus



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