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Steel Making

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...



Silicon






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an essential
constituent of nearly all the rocks of the earth. It is similar to
carbon in many of its chemical properties; for instance it burns
very readily in oxygen, and consequently native silicon is unknown--it
is always found in combination with one or more other elements.
When it bums, each atom of silicon unites with two atoms of oxygen
to form a compound known to chemists as silica (SiO2), and to the
small boy as sand and agate.

Iron ore (an oxide of iron) contains more or less sand and dirt
mixed in it when it is mined, and not only the iron oxide but also
some of the silicon oxide is robbed of its oxygen by the smelting
process. Pig iron--the product of the blast furnace--therefore
contains from 1 to 3 per cent of silicon, and some silicon remains
in the metal after it has been purified and converted into steel.

However, silicon, as noted above, burns very readily in oxygen,
and this property is of good use in steel making. At the end of
the steel-making process the metal contains more or less oxygen,
which must be removed. This is sometimes done (especially in the
so-called acid process) by adding a small amount of silicon to
the hot metal just before it leaves the furnace, and stirring it
in. It thereupon abstracts oxygen from the metal wherever it finds
it, changing to silica (SiO2) which rises and floats on the surface
of the cleaned metal. Most of the silicon remaining in the metal
is an excess over that which is required to remove the dangerous
oxygen, and the final analysis of many steels show enough silicon
(from 0.20 to 0.40) to make sure that this step in the manufacture
has been properly done.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Phosphorus



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