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The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...



Silicon






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an essential
constituent of nearly all the rocks of the earth. It is similar to
carbon in many of its chemical properties; for instance it burns
very readily in oxygen, and consequently native silicon is unknown--it
is always found in combination with one or more other elements.
When it bums, each atom of silicon unites with two atoms of oxygen
to form a compound known to chemists as silica (SiO2), and to the
small boy as sand and agate.

Iron ore (an oxide of iron) contains more or less sand and dirt
mixed in it when it is mined, and not only the iron oxide but also
some of the silicon oxide is robbed of its oxygen by the smelting
process. Pig iron--the product of the blast furnace--therefore
contains from 1 to 3 per cent of silicon, and some silicon remains
in the metal after it has been purified and converted into steel.

However, silicon, as noted above, burns very readily in oxygen,
and this property is of good use in steel making. At the end of
the steel-making process the metal contains more or less oxygen,
which must be removed. This is sometimes done (especially in the
so-called acid process) by adding a small amount of silicon to
the hot metal just before it leaves the furnace, and stirring it
in. It thereupon abstracts oxygen from the metal wherever it finds
it, changing to silica (SiO2) which rises and floats on the surface
of the cleaned metal. Most of the silicon remaining in the metal
is an excess over that which is required to remove the dangerous
oxygen, and the final analysis of many steels show enough silicon
(from 0.20 to 0.40) to make sure that this step in the manufacture
has been properly done.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Phosphorus



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