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Steel Making

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...



SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an essential
constituent of nearly all the rocks of the earth. It is similar to
carbon in many of its chemical properties; for instance it burns
very readily in oxygen, and consequently native silicon is unknown--it
is always found in combination with one or more other elements.
When it bums, each atom of silicon unites with two atoms of oxygen
to form a compound known to chemists as silica (SiO2), and to the
small boy as sand and agate.

Iron ore (an oxide of iron) contains more or less sand and dirt
mixed in it when it is mined, and not only the iron oxide but also
some of the silicon oxide is robbed of its oxygen by the smelting
process. Pig iron--the product of the blast furnace--therefore
contains from 1 to 3 per cent of silicon, and some silicon remains
in the metal after it has been purified and converted into steel.

However, silicon, as noted above, burns very readily in oxygen,
and this property is of good use in steel making. At the end of
the steel-making process the metal contains more or less oxygen,
which must be removed. This is sometimes done (especially in the
so-called acid process) by adding a small amount of silicon to
the hot metal just before it leaves the furnace, and stirring it
in. It thereupon abstracts oxygen from the metal wherever it finds
it, changing to silica (SiO2) which rises and floats on the surface
of the cleaned metal. Most of the silicon remaining in the metal
is an excess over that which is required to remove the dangerous
oxygen, and the final analysis of many steels show enough silicon
(from 0.20 to 0.40) to make sure that this step in the manufacture
has been properly done.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Phosphorus

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