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Steel Making

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...



SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an essential
constituent of nearly all the rocks of the earth. It is similar to
carbon in many of its chemical properties; for instance it burns
very readily in oxygen, and consequently native silicon is unknown--it
is always found in combination with one or more other elements.
When it bums, each atom of silicon unites with two atoms of oxygen
to form a compound known to chemists as silica (SiO2), and to the
small boy as sand and agate.

Iron ore (an oxide of iron) contains more or less sand and dirt
mixed in it when it is mined, and not only the iron oxide but also
some of the silicon oxide is robbed of its oxygen by the smelting
process. Pig iron--the product of the blast furnace--therefore
contains from 1 to 3 per cent of silicon, and some silicon remains
in the metal after it has been purified and converted into steel.

However, silicon, as noted above, burns very readily in oxygen,
and this property is of good use in steel making. At the end of
the steel-making process the metal contains more or less oxygen,
which must be removed. This is sometimes done (especially in the
so-called acid process) by adding a small amount of silicon to
the hot metal just before it leaves the furnace, and stirring it
in. It thereupon abstracts oxygen from the metal wherever it finds
it, changing to silica (SiO2) which rises and floats on the surface
of the cleaned metal. Most of the silicon remaining in the metal
is an excess over that which is required to remove the dangerous
oxygen, and the final analysis of many steels show enough silicon
(from 0.20 to 0.40) to make sure that this step in the manufacture
has been properly done.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Phosphorus

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