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SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...



SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an essential
constituent of nearly all the rocks of the earth. It is similar to
carbon in many of its chemical properties; for instance it burns
very readily in oxygen, and consequently native silicon is unknown--it
is always found in combination with one or more other elements.
When it bums, each atom of silicon unites with two atoms of oxygen
to form a compound known to chemists as silica (SiO2), and to the
small boy as sand and agate.

Iron ore (an oxide of iron) contains more or less sand and dirt
mixed in it when it is mined, and not only the iron oxide but also
some of the silicon oxide is robbed of its oxygen by the smelting
process. Pig iron--the product of the blast furnace--therefore
contains from 1 to 3 per cent of silicon, and some silicon remains
in the metal after it has been purified and converted into steel.

However, silicon, as noted above, burns very readily in oxygen,
and this property is of good use in steel making. At the end of
the steel-making process the metal contains more or less oxygen,
which must be removed. This is sometimes done (especially in the
so-called acid process) by adding a small amount of silicon to
the hot metal just before it leaves the furnace, and stirring it
in. It thereupon abstracts oxygen from the metal wherever it finds
it, changing to silica (SiO2) which rises and floats on the surface
of the cleaned metal. Most of the silicon remaining in the metal
is an excess over that which is required to remove the dangerous
oxygen, and the final analysis of many steels show enough silicon
(from 0.20 to 0.40) to make sure that this step in the manufacture
has been properly done.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Phosphorus

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