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Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...



Silicon






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an essential
constituent of nearly all the rocks of the earth. It is similar to
carbon in many of its chemical properties; for instance it burns
very readily in oxygen, and consequently native silicon is unknown--it
is always found in combination with one or more other elements.
When it bums, each atom of silicon unites with two atoms of oxygen
to form a compound known to chemists as silica (SiO2), and to the
small boy as sand and agate.

Iron ore (an oxide of iron) contains more or less sand and dirt
mixed in it when it is mined, and not only the iron oxide but also
some of the silicon oxide is robbed of its oxygen by the smelting
process. Pig iron--the product of the blast furnace--therefore
contains from 1 to 3 per cent of silicon, and some silicon remains
in the metal after it has been purified and converted into steel.

However, silicon, as noted above, burns very readily in oxygen,
and this property is of good use in steel making. At the end of
the steel-making process the metal contains more or less oxygen,
which must be removed. This is sometimes done (especially in the
so-called acid process) by adding a small amount of silicon to
the hot metal just before it leaves the furnace, and stirring it
in. It thereupon abstracts oxygen from the metal wherever it finds
it, changing to silica (SiO2) which rises and floats on the surface
of the cleaned metal. Most of the silicon remaining in the metal
is an excess over that which is required to remove the dangerous
oxygen, and the final analysis of many steels show enough silicon
(from 0.20 to 0.40) to make sure that this step in the manufacture
has been properly done.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Phosphorus



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