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Steel Making

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...



SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an essential
constituent of nearly all the rocks of the earth. It is similar to
carbon in many of its chemical properties; for instance it burns
very readily in oxygen, and consequently native silicon is unknown--it
is always found in combination with one or more other elements.
When it bums, each atom of silicon unites with two atoms of oxygen
to form a compound known to chemists as silica (SiO2), and to the
small boy as sand and agate.

Iron ore (an oxide of iron) contains more or less sand and dirt
mixed in it when it is mined, and not only the iron oxide but also
some of the silicon oxide is robbed of its oxygen by the smelting
process. Pig iron--the product of the blast furnace--therefore
contains from 1 to 3 per cent of silicon, and some silicon remains
in the metal after it has been purified and converted into steel.

However, silicon, as noted above, burns very readily in oxygen,
and this property is of good use in steel making. At the end of
the steel-making process the metal contains more or less oxygen,
which must be removed. This is sometimes done (especially in the
so-called acid process) by adding a small amount of silicon to
the hot metal just before it leaves the furnace, and stirring it
in. It thereupon abstracts oxygen from the metal wherever it finds
it, changing to silica (SiO2) which rises and floats on the surface
of the cleaned metal. Most of the silicon remaining in the metal
is an excess over that which is required to remove the dangerous
oxygen, and the final analysis of many steels show enough silicon
(from 0.20 to 0.40) to make sure that this step in the manufacture
has been properly done.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Phosphorus

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