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Steel Making

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...



SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an essential
constituent of nearly all the rocks of the earth. It is similar to
carbon in many of its chemical properties; for instance it burns
very readily in oxygen, and consequently native silicon is unknown--it
is always found in combination with one or more other elements.
When it bums, each atom of silicon unites with two atoms of oxygen
to form a compound known to chemists as silica (SiO2), and to the
small boy as sand and agate.

Iron ore (an oxide of iron) contains more or less sand and dirt
mixed in it when it is mined, and not only the iron oxide but also
some of the silicon oxide is robbed of its oxygen by the smelting
process. Pig iron--the product of the blast furnace--therefore
contains from 1 to 3 per cent of silicon, and some silicon remains
in the metal after it has been purified and converted into steel.

However, silicon, as noted above, burns very readily in oxygen,
and this property is of good use in steel making. At the end of
the steel-making process the metal contains more or less oxygen,
which must be removed. This is sometimes done (especially in the
so-called acid process) by adding a small amount of silicon to
the hot metal just before it leaves the furnace, and stirring it
in. It thereupon abstracts oxygen from the metal wherever it finds
it, changing to silica (SiO2) which rises and floats on the surface
of the cleaned metal. Most of the silicon remaining in the metal
is an excess over that which is required to remove the dangerous
oxygen, and the final analysis of many steels show enough silicon
(from 0.20 to 0.40) to make sure that this step in the manufacture
has been properly done.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Phosphorus

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