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Steel Making

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...



SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an essential
constituent of nearly all the rocks of the earth. It is similar to
carbon in many of its chemical properties; for instance it burns
very readily in oxygen, and consequently native silicon is unknown--it
is always found in combination with one or more other elements.
When it bums, each atom of silicon unites with two atoms of oxygen
to form a compound known to chemists as silica (SiO2), and to the
small boy as sand and agate.

Iron ore (an oxide of iron) contains more or less sand and dirt
mixed in it when it is mined, and not only the iron oxide but also
some of the silicon oxide is robbed of its oxygen by the smelting
process. Pig iron--the product of the blast furnace--therefore
contains from 1 to 3 per cent of silicon, and some silicon remains
in the metal after it has been purified and converted into steel.

However, silicon, as noted above, burns very readily in oxygen,
and this property is of good use in steel making. At the end of
the steel-making process the metal contains more or less oxygen,
which must be removed. This is sometimes done (especially in the
so-called acid process) by adding a small amount of silicon to
the hot metal just before it leaves the furnace, and stirring it
in. It thereupon abstracts oxygen from the metal wherever it finds
it, changing to silica (SiO2) which rises and floats on the surface
of the cleaned metal. Most of the silicon remaining in the metal
is an excess over that which is required to remove the dangerous
oxygen, and the final analysis of many steels show enough silicon
(from 0.20 to 0.40) to make sure that this step in the manufacture
has been properly done.

Next: Manganese

Previous: Phosphorus

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