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Steel Making

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...



Silicon






Category: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF STEEL

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an essential
constituent of nearly all the rocks of the earth. It is similar to
carbon in many of its chemical properties; for instance it burns
very readily in oxygen, and consequently native silicon is unknown--it
is always found in combination with one or more other elements.
When it bums, each atom of silicon unites with two atoms of oxygen
to form a compound known to chemists as silica (SiO2), and to the
small boy as sand and agate.

Iron ore (an oxide of iron) contains more or less sand and dirt
mixed in it when it is mined, and not only the iron oxide but also
some of the silicon oxide is robbed of its oxygen by the smelting
process. Pig iron--the product of the blast furnace--therefore
contains from 1 to 3 per cent of silicon, and some silicon remains
in the metal after it has been purified and converted into steel.

However, silicon, as noted above, burns very readily in oxygen,
and this property is of good use in steel making. At the end of
the steel-making process the metal contains more or less oxygen,
which must be removed. This is sometimes done (especially in the
so-called acid process) by adding a small amount of silicon to
the hot metal just before it leaves the furnace, and stirring it
in. It thereupon abstracts oxygen from the metal wherever it finds
it, changing to silica (SiO2) which rises and floats on the surface
of the cleaned metal. Most of the silicon remaining in the metal
is an excess over that which is required to remove the dangerous
oxygen, and the final analysis of many steels show enough silicon
(from 0.20 to 0.40) to make sure that this step in the manufacture
has been properly done.





Next: Manganese

Previous: Phosphorus



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