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Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...



Pyrometry And Pyrometers






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or the
measurement of temperatures, is quite necessary for one engaged
in the heat treatment of steel. It is only by careful measurement
and control of the heating of steel that the full benefit of a
heat-treating operation is secured.

Before the advent of the thermo-couple, methods of temperature
measurement were very crude. The blacksmith depended on his eyes
to tell him when the proper temperature was reached, and of course
the color appeared different on light or dark days. Cherry
to one man was orange to another, and it was therefore almost
impossible to formulate any treatment which could be applied by
several men to secure the same results.

One of the early methods of measuring temperatures was the iron
ball method. In this method, an iron ball, to which a wire was
attached, was placed in the furnace and when it had reached the
temperature of the furnace, it was quickly removed by means of
the wire, and suspended in a can containing a known quantity of
water; the volume of water being such that the heat would not cause
it to boil. The rise in temperature of the water was measured by a
thermometer, and, knowing the heat capacity of the iron ball and
that of the water, the temperature of the ball, and therefore the
furnace, could be calculated. Usually a set of tables was prepared
to simplify the calculations. The iron ball, however, scaled, and
changed in weight with repeated use, making the determinations
less and less accurate. A copper ball was often used to decrease
this change, but even that was subject to error. This method is
still sometimes used, but for uniform results, a platinum ball,
which will not scale or change in weight, is necessary, and the
cost of this ball, together with the slowness of the method, have
rendered the practice obsolete, especially in view of modern
developments in accurate pyrometry.





Next: Pyrometers

Previous: Furnace Data



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