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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...



Pyrometry And Pyrometers






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or the
measurement of temperatures, is quite necessary for one engaged
in the heat treatment of steel. It is only by careful measurement
and control of the heating of steel that the full benefit of a
heat-treating operation is secured.

Before the advent of the thermo-couple, methods of temperature
measurement were very crude. The blacksmith depended on his eyes
to tell him when the proper temperature was reached, and of course
the color appeared different on light or dark days. Cherry
to one man was orange to another, and it was therefore almost
impossible to formulate any treatment which could be applied by
several men to secure the same results.

One of the early methods of measuring temperatures was the iron
ball method. In this method, an iron ball, to which a wire was
attached, was placed in the furnace and when it had reached the
temperature of the furnace, it was quickly removed by means of
the wire, and suspended in a can containing a known quantity of
water; the volume of water being such that the heat would not cause
it to boil. The rise in temperature of the water was measured by a
thermometer, and, knowing the heat capacity of the iron ball and
that of the water, the temperature of the ball, and therefore the
furnace, could be calculated. Usually a set of tables was prepared
to simplify the calculations. The iron ball, however, scaled, and
changed in weight with repeated use, making the determinations
less and less accurate. A copper ball was often used to decrease
this change, but even that was subject to error. This method is
still sometimes used, but for uniform results, a platinum ball,
which will not scale or change in weight, is necessary, and the
cost of this ball, together with the slowness of the method, have
rendered the practice obsolete, especially in view of modern
developments in accurate pyrometry.





Next: Pyrometers

Previous: Furnace Data



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