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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...



Pyrometry And Pyrometers






Category: PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS

A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or the
measurement of temperatures, is quite necessary for one engaged
in the heat treatment of steel. It is only by careful measurement
and control of the heating of steel that the full benefit of a
heat-treating operation is secured.

Before the advent of the thermo-couple, methods of temperature
measurement were very crude. The blacksmith depended on his eyes
to tell him when the proper temperature was reached, and of course
the color appeared different on light or dark days. Cherry
to one man was orange to another, and it was therefore almost
impossible to formulate any treatment which could be applied by
several men to secure the same results.

One of the early methods of measuring temperatures was the iron
ball method. In this method, an iron ball, to which a wire was
attached, was placed in the furnace and when it had reached the
temperature of the furnace, it was quickly removed by means of
the wire, and suspended in a can containing a known quantity of
water; the volume of water being such that the heat would not cause
it to boil. The rise in temperature of the water was measured by a
thermometer, and, knowing the heat capacity of the iron ball and
that of the water, the temperature of the ball, and therefore the
furnace, could be calculated. Usually a set of tables was prepared
to simplify the calculations. The iron ball, however, scaled, and
changed in weight with repeated use, making the determinations
less and less accurate. A copper ball was often used to decrease
this change, but even that was subject to error. This method is
still sometimes used, but for uniform results, a platinum ball,
which will not scale or change in weight, is necessary, and the
cost of this ball, together with the slowness of the method, have
rendered the practice obsolete, especially in view of modern
developments in accurate pyrometry.





Next: Pyrometers

Previous: Furnace Data



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