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Steel Making

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Standard Analysis


The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.

Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel

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