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Steel Making

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Standard Analysis


The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.

Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel

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