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Steel Making

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Standard Analysis


The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.

Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel

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