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Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...



Standard Analysis






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.





Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel



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