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Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...



Standard Analysis






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.





Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel



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