Lived from 1254-1324 Some years before St. Louis led his last Crusade there was born in Venice a boy named Marco Polo. His father was a wealthy merchant who often went on trading journeys to distant lands. In 1271, when Marco was... Read more of Marco Polo at Biographical.caInformational Site Network Informational
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Steel Making

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Standard Analysis


The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.

Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel

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