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Steel Making

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Standard Analysis


The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.

Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel

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