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Steel Making

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...



Standard Analysis






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.





Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel



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