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Steel Making

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Standard Analysis


The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.

Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel

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