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Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...



Standard Analysis






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.





Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel



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