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Steel Making

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Standard Analysis


The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.

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