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Steel Making

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Standard Analysis


The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.

Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel

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