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Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...



Standard Analysis






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.





Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel



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