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Steel Making

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obta...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used ...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Standard Analysis


The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.

Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel

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