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Steel Making

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Standard Analysis


The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.

Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel

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