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Steel Making

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Standard Analysis


The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.

Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel

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