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William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...



Standard Analysis






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.





Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel



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