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Steel Making

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Standard Analysis


The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.

Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel

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