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Steel Making

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Standard Analysis


The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.

Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel

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