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Steel Making

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Standard Analysis


The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.

Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel

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