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   Home - Steel Making - Categories - Manufacturing and the Economy of Machinery

Steel Making

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw,...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found i...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...



Standard Analysis






Category: HIGH-SPEED STEEL

The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of chemical analyses of various brands. The steel, to
be within the range of generally accepted analysis, should contain
over 16 per cent and under 20 per cent tungsten; if of lower tungsten
content it should carry proportionately more chromium and vanadium.

The combined action of tungsten and chromium in steel gives to it the
remarkable property of maintaining its cutting edge at relatively high
temperature. This property is commonly spoken of as red-hardness.
The percentages of tungsten and chromium present should bear a
definite relationship to each other. Chromium imparts to steel
a hardening property similar to that given by carbon, although
to a less degree. The hardness imparted to steel by chromium is
accompanied by brittleness. The chromium content should be between
3.5 and 5 per cent.

Vanadium was first introduced in high-speed steel as a scavenger,
thereby producing a more homogeneous product, of greater density
and physical strength. It soon became evident that vanadium used
in larger quantities than necessary as a scavenger imparted to
the steel a much greater cutting efficiency. Recently, no less an
authority than Prof. J. O. Arnold, of the University of Sheffield,
England, stated that high-speed steels containing vanadium have
a mean efficiency of 108.9, as against a mean efficiency of 61.9
obtained from those without vanadium content. A wide range of
vanadium content in steel, from 0.5 to 1.5 per cent, is permissible.

An ideal analysis for high-speed steel containing 18 per cent tungsten
is a chromium content of approximately 3.85 per cent; vanadium, 0.85
to 1.10 per cent, and carbon, between 0.62 and 0.77 per cent.





Next: Detrimental Elements

Previous: High Speed Steel



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