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Steel Making

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work


Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling.
Pins for forced fits can be enlarged several thousandths of an
inch by rapid heating to a dull red and quenching in water. The
theory is that the metal is expanded in heating and that the sudden
cooling sets the outer portion before the core can contract. In
dipping the piece is not held under water till cold but is dipped,
held a moment and removed. Then dipped again and again until cold.

Rings and drawing dies are also shrunk in a similar way. The rings
are slowly heated to a cherry red, slipped on a rod and rolled
in a shallow pan of water which cools only the outer edge. This
holds the outside while the inner heated portion is forced inward,
reducing the hole. This operation can be repeated a number of times
with considerable success.

Next: Tempering Round Dies

Previous: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

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