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Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work


Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling.
Pins for forced fits can be enlarged several thousandths of an
inch by rapid heating to a dull red and quenching in water. The
theory is that the metal is expanded in heating and that the sudden
cooling sets the outer portion before the core can contract. In
dipping the piece is not held under water till cold but is dipped,
held a moment and removed. Then dipped again and again until cold.

Rings and drawing dies are also shrunk in a similar way. The rings
are slowly heated to a cherry red, slipped on a rod and rolled
in a shallow pan of water which cools only the outer edge. This
holds the outside while the inner heated portion is forced inward,
reducing the hole. This operation can be repeated a number of times
with considerable success.

Next: Tempering Round Dies

Previous: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

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