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Steel Making

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the fa...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work


Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling.
Pins for forced fits can be enlarged several thousandths of an
inch by rapid heating to a dull red and quenching in water. The
theory is that the metal is expanded in heating and that the sudden
cooling sets the outer portion before the core can contract. In
dipping the piece is not held under water till cold but is dipped,
held a moment and removed. Then dipped again and again until cold.

Rings and drawing dies are also shrunk in a similar way. The rings
are slowly heated to a cherry red, slipped on a rod and rolled
in a shallow pan of water which cools only the outer edge. This
holds the outside while the inner heated portion is forced inward,
reducing the hole. This operation can be repeated a number of times
with considerable success.

Next: Tempering Round Dies

Previous: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

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