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Steel Making

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work


Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling.
Pins for forced fits can be enlarged several thousandths of an
inch by rapid heating to a dull red and quenching in water. The
theory is that the metal is expanded in heating and that the sudden
cooling sets the outer portion before the core can contract. In
dipping the piece is not held under water till cold but is dipped,
held a moment and removed. Then dipped again and again until cold.

Rings and drawing dies are also shrunk in a similar way. The rings
are slowly heated to a cherry red, slipped on a rod and rolled
in a shallow pan of water which cools only the outer edge. This
holds the outside while the inner heated portion is forced inward,
reducing the hole. This operation can be repeated a number of times
with considerable success.

Next: Tempering Round Dies

Previous: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

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