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Steel Making

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganes...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work


Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling.
Pins for forced fits can be enlarged several thousandths of an
inch by rapid heating to a dull red and quenching in water. The
theory is that the metal is expanded in heating and that the sudden
cooling sets the outer portion before the core can contract. In
dipping the piece is not held under water till cold but is dipped,
held a moment and removed. Then dipped again and again until cold.

Rings and drawing dies are also shrunk in a similar way. The rings
are slowly heated to a cherry red, slipped on a rod and rolled
in a shallow pan of water which cools only the outer edge. This
holds the outside while the inner heated portion is forced inward,
reducing the hole. This operation can be repeated a number of times
with considerable success.

Next: Tempering Round Dies

Previous: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

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