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Steel Making

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work


Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling.
Pins for forced fits can be enlarged several thousandths of an
inch by rapid heating to a dull red and quenching in water. The
theory is that the metal is expanded in heating and that the sudden
cooling sets the outer portion before the core can contract. In
dipping the piece is not held under water till cold but is dipped,
held a moment and removed. Then dipped again and again until cold.

Rings and drawing dies are also shrunk in a similar way. The rings
are slowly heated to a cherry red, slipped on a rod and rolled
in a shallow pan of water which cools only the outer edge. This
holds the outside while the inner heated portion is forced inward,
reducing the hole. This operation can be repeated a number of times
with considerable success.

Next: Tempering Round Dies

Previous: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

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