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Steel Making

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thorough...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely nece...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy s...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quen...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work


Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling.
Pins for forced fits can be enlarged several thousandths of an
inch by rapid heating to a dull red and quenching in water. The
theory is that the metal is expanded in heating and that the sudden
cooling sets the outer portion before the core can contract. In
dipping the piece is not held under water till cold but is dipped,
held a moment and removed. Then dipped again and again until cold.

Rings and drawing dies are also shrunk in a similar way. The rings
are slowly heated to a cherry red, slipped on a rod and rolled
in a shallow pan of water which cools only the outer edge. This
holds the outside while the inner heated portion is forced inward,
reducing the hole. This operation can be repeated a number of times
with considerable success.

Next: Tempering Round Dies

Previous: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

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