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Steel Making

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work


Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling.
Pins for forced fits can be enlarged several thousandths of an
inch by rapid heating to a dull red and quenching in water. The
theory is that the metal is expanded in heating and that the sudden
cooling sets the outer portion before the core can contract. In
dipping the piece is not held under water till cold but is dipped,
held a moment and removed. Then dipped again and again until cold.

Rings and drawing dies are also shrunk in a similar way. The rings
are slowly heated to a cherry red, slipped on a rod and rolled
in a shallow pan of water which cools only the outer edge. This
holds the outside while the inner heated portion is forced inward,
reducing the hole. This operation can be repeated a number of times
with considerable success.

Next: Tempering Round Dies

Previous: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

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