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Steel Making

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work


Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling.
Pins for forced fits can be enlarged several thousandths of an
inch by rapid heating to a dull red and quenching in water. The
theory is that the metal is expanded in heating and that the sudden
cooling sets the outer portion before the core can contract. In
dipping the piece is not held under water till cold but is dipped,
held a moment and removed. Then dipped again and again until cold.

Rings and drawing dies are also shrunk in a similar way. The rings
are slowly heated to a cherry red, slipped on a rod and rolled
in a shallow pan of water which cools only the outer edge. This
holds the outside while the inner heated portion is forced inward,
reducing the hole. This operation can be repeated a number of times
with considerable success.

Next: Tempering Round Dies

Previous: Preventing Cracks In Hardening

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