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Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...



Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

The hard parts of the
gear must be so hard that a new mill file does not bite in the
least. Having passed this file test at several points, the gears go
to the center-punch test. The inspector is equipped with a wooden
trough secured to the top of the bench to support the gear, a number
of center punches (made of 3/4-in. hex-steel having points sharpened
to an angle of 120 deg.) and a hammer weighing about 4 oz. With
these simple tools, supplemented by his skill, the inspector can
feel the depth and quality of the case and the condition of the
core. The gears are each tested in this way at several points on
the teeth and elsewhere, the scrap gear being also subjected to
the test. Finally, the scrap gear is securely clamped in the
straightening press shown in Fig. 57. With a 3-1/2-lb. hammer and
a suitable hollow-ended drift manipulated by one of Sandow's
understudies, teeth are broken out of the scrap gear at various
points. These give a record confirming the center-punch tests,
which, if the angle of the center punch is kept at 120 deg. and
the weight of the hammer and blow are uniform, is very accurate.

After passing the center-punch test the ends of the teeth are peened
lightly with a hammer. If they are too hard, small particles fly
off. Such gears are drawn in oil at a temperature of from 300 to
350 deg.F., depending on their hardness. Some builders prefer to have
the extreme outer ends of the teeth drawn somewhat lower than the
rest. This drawing is done on gas-heated red-hot plates, as shown
at A in Fig. 58.



Nickel steel, in addition to all the tests given to carbon steel,
is subjected to a Brinell test. For each steel, the temperature
and the period of treatment are specific. For some unknown reason,
apparently like material with like treatment will, in isolated
cases, not produce like results. It then remains for the treatment
to be repeated or modified, but the results obtained during inspection
form a valuable aid to the metallurgist in determining further
treatment.





Next: Temperature Recording And Regulation

Previous: Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon



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