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Steel Making

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment


The hard parts of the
gear must be so hard that a new mill file does not bite in the
least. Having passed this file test at several points, the gears go
to the center-punch test. The inspector is equipped with a wooden
trough secured to the top of the bench to support the gear, a number
of center punches (made of 3/4-in. hex-steel having points sharpened
to an angle of 120 deg.) and a hammer weighing about 4 oz. With
these simple tools, supplemented by his skill, the inspector can
feel the depth and quality of the case and the condition of the
core. The gears are each tested in this way at several points on
the teeth and elsewhere, the scrap gear being also subjected to
the test. Finally, the scrap gear is securely clamped in the
straightening press shown in Fig. 57. With a 3-1/2-lb. hammer and
a suitable hollow-ended drift manipulated by one of Sandow's
understudies, teeth are broken out of the scrap gear at various
points. These give a record confirming the center-punch tests,
which, if the angle of the center punch is kept at 120 deg. and
the weight of the hammer and blow are uniform, is very accurate.

After passing the center-punch test the ends of the teeth are peened
lightly with a hammer. If they are too hard, small particles fly
off. Such gears are drawn in oil at a temperature of from 300 to
350 deg.F., depending on their hardness. Some builders prefer to have
the extreme outer ends of the teeth drawn somewhat lower than the
rest. This drawing is done on gas-heated red-hot plates, as shown
at A in Fig. 58.

Nickel steel, in addition to all the tests given to carbon steel,
is subjected to a Brinell test. For each steel, the temperature
and the period of treatment are specific. For some unknown reason,
apparently like material with like treatment will, in isolated
cases, not produce like results. It then remains for the treatment
to be repeated or modified, but the results obtained during inspection
form a valuable aid to the metallurgist in determining further

Next: Temperature Recording And Regulation

Previous: Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon

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