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Steel Making

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is tak...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...



Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

The hard parts of the
gear must be so hard that a new mill file does not bite in the
least. Having passed this file test at several points, the gears go
to the center-punch test. The inspector is equipped with a wooden
trough secured to the top of the bench to support the gear, a number
of center punches (made of 3/4-in. hex-steel having points sharpened
to an angle of 120 deg.) and a hammer weighing about 4 oz. With
these simple tools, supplemented by his skill, the inspector can
feel the depth and quality of the case and the condition of the
core. The gears are each tested in this way at several points on
the teeth and elsewhere, the scrap gear being also subjected to
the test. Finally, the scrap gear is securely clamped in the
straightening press shown in Fig. 57. With a 3-1/2-lb. hammer and
a suitable hollow-ended drift manipulated by one of Sandow's
understudies, teeth are broken out of the scrap gear at various
points. These give a record confirming the center-punch tests,
which, if the angle of the center punch is kept at 120 deg. and
the weight of the hammer and blow are uniform, is very accurate.

After passing the center-punch test the ends of the teeth are peened
lightly with a hammer. If they are too hard, small particles fly
off. Such gears are drawn in oil at a temperature of from 300 to
350 deg.F., depending on their hardness. Some builders prefer to have
the extreme outer ends of the teeth drawn somewhat lower than the
rest. This drawing is done on gas-heated red-hot plates, as shown
at A in Fig. 58.



Nickel steel, in addition to all the tests given to carbon steel,
is subjected to a Brinell test. For each steel, the temperature
and the period of treatment are specific. For some unknown reason,
apparently like material with like treatment will, in isolated
cases, not produce like results. It then remains for the treatment
to be repeated or modified, but the results obtained during inspection
form a valuable aid to the metallurgist in determining further
treatment.





Next: Temperature Recording And Regulation

Previous: Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon



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