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Steel Making

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment


The hard parts of the
gear must be so hard that a new mill file does not bite in the
least. Having passed this file test at several points, the gears go
to the center-punch test. The inspector is equipped with a wooden
trough secured to the top of the bench to support the gear, a number
of center punches (made of 3/4-in. hex-steel having points sharpened
to an angle of 120 deg.) and a hammer weighing about 4 oz. With
these simple tools, supplemented by his skill, the inspector can
feel the depth and quality of the case and the condition of the
core. The gears are each tested in this way at several points on
the teeth and elsewhere, the scrap gear being also subjected to
the test. Finally, the scrap gear is securely clamped in the
straightening press shown in Fig. 57. With a 3-1/2-lb. hammer and
a suitable hollow-ended drift manipulated by one of Sandow's
understudies, teeth are broken out of the scrap gear at various
points. These give a record confirming the center-punch tests,
which, if the angle of the center punch is kept at 120 deg. and
the weight of the hammer and blow are uniform, is very accurate.

After passing the center-punch test the ends of the teeth are peened
lightly with a hammer. If they are too hard, small particles fly
off. Such gears are drawn in oil at a temperature of from 300 to
350 deg.F., depending on their hardness. Some builders prefer to have
the extreme outer ends of the teeth drawn somewhat lower than the
rest. This drawing is done on gas-heated red-hot plates, as shown
at A in Fig. 58.

Nickel steel, in addition to all the tests given to carbon steel,
is subjected to a Brinell test. For each steel, the temperature
and the period of treatment are specific. For some unknown reason,
apparently like material with like treatment will, in isolated
cases, not produce like results. It then remains for the treatment
to be repeated or modified, but the results obtained during inspection
form a valuable aid to the metallurgist in determining further

Next: Temperature Recording And Regulation

Previous: Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon

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