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Steel Making

The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment


The hard parts of the
gear must be so hard that a new mill file does not bite in the
least. Having passed this file test at several points, the gears go
to the center-punch test. The inspector is equipped with a wooden
trough secured to the top of the bench to support the gear, a number
of center punches (made of 3/4-in. hex-steel having points sharpened
to an angle of 120 deg.) and a hammer weighing about 4 oz. With
these simple tools, supplemented by his skill, the inspector can
feel the depth and quality of the case and the condition of the
core. The gears are each tested in this way at several points on
the teeth and elsewhere, the scrap gear being also subjected to
the test. Finally, the scrap gear is securely clamped in the
straightening press shown in Fig. 57. With a 3-1/2-lb. hammer and
a suitable hollow-ended drift manipulated by one of Sandow's
understudies, teeth are broken out of the scrap gear at various
points. These give a record confirming the center-punch tests,
which, if the angle of the center punch is kept at 120 deg. and
the weight of the hammer and blow are uniform, is very accurate.

After passing the center-punch test the ends of the teeth are peened
lightly with a hammer. If they are too hard, small particles fly
off. Such gears are drawn in oil at a temperature of from 300 to
350 deg.F., depending on their hardness. Some builders prefer to have
the extreme outer ends of the teeth drawn somewhat lower than the
rest. This drawing is done on gas-heated red-hot plates, as shown
at A in Fig. 58.

Nickel steel, in addition to all the tests given to carbon steel,
is subjected to a Brinell test. For each steel, the temperature
and the period of treatment are specific. For some unknown reason,
apparently like material with like treatment will, in isolated
cases, not produce like results. It then remains for the treatment
to be repeated or modified, but the results obtained during inspection
form a valuable aid to the metallurgist in determining further

Next: Temperature Recording And Regulation

Previous: Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon

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