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Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was sel...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-t...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. ...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...



Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

The hard parts of the
gear must be so hard that a new mill file does not bite in the
least. Having passed this file test at several points, the gears go
to the center-punch test. The inspector is equipped with a wooden
trough secured to the top of the bench to support the gear, a number
of center punches (made of 3/4-in. hex-steel having points sharpened
to an angle of 120 deg.) and a hammer weighing about 4 oz. With
these simple tools, supplemented by his skill, the inspector can
feel the depth and quality of the case and the condition of the
core. The gears are each tested in this way at several points on
the teeth and elsewhere, the scrap gear being also subjected to
the test. Finally, the scrap gear is securely clamped in the
straightening press shown in Fig. 57. With a 3-1/2-lb. hammer and
a suitable hollow-ended drift manipulated by one of Sandow's
understudies, teeth are broken out of the scrap gear at various
points. These give a record confirming the center-punch tests,
which, if the angle of the center punch is kept at 120 deg. and
the weight of the hammer and blow are uniform, is very accurate.

After passing the center-punch test the ends of the teeth are peened
lightly with a hammer. If they are too hard, small particles fly
off. Such gears are drawn in oil at a temperature of from 300 to
350 deg.F., depending on their hardness. Some builders prefer to have
the extreme outer ends of the teeth drawn somewhat lower than the
rest. This drawing is done on gas-heated red-hot plates, as shown
at A in Fig. 58.



Nickel steel, in addition to all the tests given to carbon steel,
is subjected to a Brinell test. For each steel, the temperature
and the period of treatment are specific. For some unknown reason,
apparently like material with like treatment will, in isolated
cases, not produce like results. It then remains for the treatment
to be repeated or modified, but the results obtained during inspection
form a valuable aid to the metallurgist in determining further
treatment.





Next: Temperature Recording And Regulation

Previous: Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon



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