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Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in too...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Besseme...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel ...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment


The hard parts of the
gear must be so hard that a new mill file does not bite in the
least. Having passed this file test at several points, the gears go
to the center-punch test. The inspector is equipped with a wooden
trough secured to the top of the bench to support the gear, a number
of center punches (made of 3/4-in. hex-steel having points sharpened
to an angle of 120 deg.) and a hammer weighing about 4 oz. With
these simple tools, supplemented by his skill, the inspector can
feel the depth and quality of the case and the condition of the
core. The gears are each tested in this way at several points on
the teeth and elsewhere, the scrap gear being also subjected to
the test. Finally, the scrap gear is securely clamped in the
straightening press shown in Fig. 57. With a 3-1/2-lb. hammer and
a suitable hollow-ended drift manipulated by one of Sandow's
understudies, teeth are broken out of the scrap gear at various
points. These give a record confirming the center-punch tests,
which, if the angle of the center punch is kept at 120 deg. and
the weight of the hammer and blow are uniform, is very accurate.

After passing the center-punch test the ends of the teeth are peened
lightly with a hammer. If they are too hard, small particles fly
off. Such gears are drawn in oil at a temperature of from 300 to
350 deg.F., depending on their hardness. Some builders prefer to have
the extreme outer ends of the teeth drawn somewhat lower than the
rest. This drawing is done on gas-heated red-hot plates, as shown
at A in Fig. 58.

Nickel steel, in addition to all the tests given to carbon steel,
is subjected to a Brinell test. For each steel, the temperature
and the period of treatment are specific. For some unknown reason,
apparently like material with like treatment will, in isolated
cases, not produce like results. It then remains for the treatment
to be repeated or modified, but the results obtained during inspection
form a valuable aid to the metallurgist in determining further

Next: Temperature Recording And Regulation

Previous: Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon

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