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Steel Making

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of D...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the ...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment


The hard parts of the
gear must be so hard that a new mill file does not bite in the
least. Having passed this file test at several points, the gears go
to the center-punch test. The inspector is equipped with a wooden
trough secured to the top of the bench to support the gear, a number
of center punches (made of 3/4-in. hex-steel having points sharpened
to an angle of 120 deg.) and a hammer weighing about 4 oz. With
these simple tools, supplemented by his skill, the inspector can
feel the depth and quality of the case and the condition of the
core. The gears are each tested in this way at several points on
the teeth and elsewhere, the scrap gear being also subjected to
the test. Finally, the scrap gear is securely clamped in the
straightening press shown in Fig. 57. With a 3-1/2-lb. hammer and
a suitable hollow-ended drift manipulated by one of Sandow's
understudies, teeth are broken out of the scrap gear at various
points. These give a record confirming the center-punch tests,
which, if the angle of the center punch is kept at 120 deg. and
the weight of the hammer and blow are uniform, is very accurate.

After passing the center-punch test the ends of the teeth are peened
lightly with a hammer. If they are too hard, small particles fly
off. Such gears are drawn in oil at a temperature of from 300 to
350 deg.F., depending on their hardness. Some builders prefer to have
the extreme outer ends of the teeth drawn somewhat lower than the
rest. This drawing is done on gas-heated red-hot plates, as shown
at A in Fig. 58.

Nickel steel, in addition to all the tests given to carbon steel,
is subjected to a Brinell test. For each steel, the temperature
and the period of treatment are specific. For some unknown reason,
apparently like material with like treatment will, in isolated
cases, not produce like results. It then remains for the treatment
to be repeated or modified, but the results obtained during inspection
form a valuable aid to the metallurgist in determining further

Next: Temperature Recording And Regulation

Previous: Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon

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