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The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufa...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats ...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment


The hard parts of the
gear must be so hard that a new mill file does not bite in the
least. Having passed this file test at several points, the gears go
to the center-punch test. The inspector is equipped with a wooden
trough secured to the top of the bench to support the gear, a number
of center punches (made of 3/4-in. hex-steel having points sharpened
to an angle of 120 deg.) and a hammer weighing about 4 oz. With
these simple tools, supplemented by his skill, the inspector can
feel the depth and quality of the case and the condition of the
core. The gears are each tested in this way at several points on
the teeth and elsewhere, the scrap gear being also subjected to
the test. Finally, the scrap gear is securely clamped in the
straightening press shown in Fig. 57. With a 3-1/2-lb. hammer and
a suitable hollow-ended drift manipulated by one of Sandow's
understudies, teeth are broken out of the scrap gear at various
points. These give a record confirming the center-punch tests,
which, if the angle of the center punch is kept at 120 deg. and
the weight of the hammer and blow are uniform, is very accurate.

After passing the center-punch test the ends of the teeth are peened
lightly with a hammer. If they are too hard, small particles fly
off. Such gears are drawn in oil at a temperature of from 300 to
350 deg.F., depending on their hardness. Some builders prefer to have
the extreme outer ends of the teeth drawn somewhat lower than the
rest. This drawing is done on gas-heated red-hot plates, as shown
at A in Fig. 58.

Nickel steel, in addition to all the tests given to carbon steel,
is subjected to a Brinell test. For each steel, the temperature
and the period of treatment are specific. For some unknown reason,
apparently like material with like treatment will, in isolated
cases, not produce like results. It then remains for the treatment
to be repeated or modified, but the results obtained during inspection
form a valuable aid to the metallurgist in determining further

Next: Temperature Recording And Regulation

Previous: Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon

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