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Steel Making

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the ...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal fr...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication ...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to t...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the ver...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packe...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...



Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

The hard parts of the
gear must be so hard that a new mill file does not bite in the
least. Having passed this file test at several points, the gears go
to the center-punch test. The inspector is equipped with a wooden
trough secured to the top of the bench to support the gear, a number
of center punches (made of 3/4-in. hex-steel having points sharpened
to an angle of 120 deg.) and a hammer weighing about 4 oz. With
these simple tools, supplemented by his skill, the inspector can
feel the depth and quality of the case and the condition of the
core. The gears are each tested in this way at several points on
the teeth and elsewhere, the scrap gear being also subjected to
the test. Finally, the scrap gear is securely clamped in the
straightening press shown in Fig. 57. With a 3-1/2-lb. hammer and
a suitable hollow-ended drift manipulated by one of Sandow's
understudies, teeth are broken out of the scrap gear at various
points. These give a record confirming the center-punch tests,
which, if the angle of the center punch is kept at 120 deg. and
the weight of the hammer and blow are uniform, is very accurate.

After passing the center-punch test the ends of the teeth are peened
lightly with a hammer. If they are too hard, small particles fly
off. Such gears are drawn in oil at a temperature of from 300 to
350 deg.F., depending on their hardness. Some builders prefer to have
the extreme outer ends of the teeth drawn somewhat lower than the
rest. This drawing is done on gas-heated red-hot plates, as shown
at A in Fig. 58.



Nickel steel, in addition to all the tests given to carbon steel,
is subjected to a Brinell test. For each steel, the temperature
and the period of treatment are specific. For some unknown reason,
apparently like material with like treatment will, in isolated
cases, not produce like results. It then remains for the treatment
to be repeated or modified, but the results obtained during inspection
form a valuable aid to the metallurgist in determining further
treatment.





Next: Temperature Recording And Regulation

Previous: Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon



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