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Steel Making

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not ham...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engi...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare a...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...

Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill f...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

The Packing Department


In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where
the work is packed. These are of malleable cast iron, with an internal
vertical flange around the hole A. This fits in a bell on the
end of the cast-iron pipe B, which is luted in position with
fireclay before the packing begins. At C is shown a pot ready
for packing. The crown gears average 10 to 12 in. in diameter and
weigh about 11 lb. each. When placed in the pots, they surround
the central tube, which allows the heat to circulate. Each pot
contains five gears. Two complete scrap gears are in each furnace
(i.e., gears which fail to pass machining inspection), and at
the top of front pot are two or more short segments of scrap gear,
used as test pieces to gage depth of case.

After filling to the top with compound, the lid D is luted on.
Ten pots are then placed in a furnace. It will be noted that the
pots to the right are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, indicating the position
they are to occupy in the furnace.

The cast-iron ball shown at E is small enough to drop through
the pipe B, but will not pass through the hole A in the bottom
of the pot. It is used as a valve to plug the bottom of the pot
to prevent the carburizing compound from dropping through when
removing the carburized gears to the quenching bath.

Without detracting from the high quality of the work, the metallurgist
in this plant has succeeded in cutting out one entire operation
and reducing the time in the hardening room by about 24 hr.

Formerly, the work was carburized at about 1,700 deg.F. for 9 hr. The
pots were then run out into the yard and allowed to cool slowly.
When cool, the work was taken out of the pots, reheated and quenched
at 1,600 deg.F. to refine the core. It was again reheated to 1,425 deg.F.
and quenched to refine the case. Finally, it was drawn to the proper

Next: Short Method Of Treatment

Previous: Heat-treating Department

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