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Steel Making

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is t...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an es...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...



The Packing Department






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where
the work is packed. These are of malleable cast iron, with an internal
vertical flange around the hole A. This fits in a bell on the
end of the cast-iron pipe B, which is luted in position with
fireclay before the packing begins. At C is shown a pot ready
for packing. The crown gears average 10 to 12 in. in diameter and
weigh about 11 lb. each. When placed in the pots, they surround
the central tube, which allows the heat to circulate. Each pot
contains five gears. Two complete scrap gears are in each furnace
(i.e., gears which fail to pass machining inspection), and at
the top of front pot are two or more short segments of scrap gear,
used as test pieces to gage depth of case.



After filling to the top with compound, the lid D is luted on.
Ten pots are then placed in a furnace. It will be noted that the
pots to the right are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, indicating the position
they are to occupy in the furnace.

The cast-iron ball shown at E is small enough to drop through
the pipe B, but will not pass through the hole A in the bottom
of the pot. It is used as a valve to plug the bottom of the pot
to prevent the carburizing compound from dropping through when
removing the carburized gears to the quenching bath.

Without detracting from the high quality of the work, the metallurgist
in this plant has succeeded in cutting out one entire operation
and reducing the time in the hardening room by about 24 hr.

Formerly, the work was carburized at about 1,700 deg.F. for 9 hr. The
pots were then run out into the yard and allowed to cool slowly.
When cool, the work was taken out of the pots, reheated and quenched
at 1,600 deg.F. to refine the core. It was again reheated to 1,425 deg.F.
and quenched to refine the case. Finally, it was drawn to the proper
temper.





Next: Short Method Of Treatment

Previous: Heat-treating Department



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