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Steel Making

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactor...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it re...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor ...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a ca...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

The Packing Department


In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where
the work is packed. These are of malleable cast iron, with an internal
vertical flange around the hole A. This fits in a bell on the
end of the cast-iron pipe B, which is luted in position with
fireclay before the packing begins. At C is shown a pot ready
for packing. The crown gears average 10 to 12 in. in diameter and
weigh about 11 lb. each. When placed in the pots, they surround
the central tube, which allows the heat to circulate. Each pot
contains five gears. Two complete scrap gears are in each furnace
(i.e., gears which fail to pass machining inspection), and at
the top of front pot are two or more short segments of scrap gear,
used as test pieces to gage depth of case.

After filling to the top with compound, the lid D is luted on.
Ten pots are then placed in a furnace. It will be noted that the
pots to the right are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, indicating the position
they are to occupy in the furnace.

The cast-iron ball shown at E is small enough to drop through
the pipe B, but will not pass through the hole A in the bottom
of the pot. It is used as a valve to plug the bottom of the pot
to prevent the carburizing compound from dropping through when
removing the carburized gears to the quenching bath.

Without detracting from the high quality of the work, the metallurgist
in this plant has succeeded in cutting out one entire operation
and reducing the time in the hardening room by about 24 hr.

Formerly, the work was carburized at about 1,700 deg.F. for 9 hr. The
pots were then run out into the yard and allowed to cool slowly.
When cool, the work was taken out of the pots, reheated and quenched
at 1,600 deg.F. to refine the core. It was again reheated to 1,425 deg.F.
and quenched to refine the case. Finally, it was drawn to the proper

Next: Short Method Of Treatment

Previous: Heat-treating Department

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