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Steel Making

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-har...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing f...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properti...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same materia...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is parti...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanica...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. Wi...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of ...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entir...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Compan...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

The Packing Department


In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where
the work is packed. These are of malleable cast iron, with an internal
vertical flange around the hole A. This fits in a bell on the
end of the cast-iron pipe B, which is luted in position with
fireclay before the packing begins. At C is shown a pot ready
for packing. The crown gears average 10 to 12 in. in diameter and
weigh about 11 lb. each. When placed in the pots, they surround
the central tube, which allows the heat to circulate. Each pot
contains five gears. Two complete scrap gears are in each furnace
(i.e., gears which fail to pass machining inspection), and at
the top of front pot are two or more short segments of scrap gear,
used as test pieces to gage depth of case.

After filling to the top with compound, the lid D is luted on.
Ten pots are then placed in a furnace. It will be noted that the
pots to the right are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, indicating the position
they are to occupy in the furnace.

The cast-iron ball shown at E is small enough to drop through
the pipe B, but will not pass through the hole A in the bottom
of the pot. It is used as a valve to plug the bottom of the pot
to prevent the carburizing compound from dropping through when
removing the carburized gears to the quenching bath.

Without detracting from the high quality of the work, the metallurgist
in this plant has succeeded in cutting out one entire operation
and reducing the time in the hardening room by about 24 hr.

Formerly, the work was carburized at about 1,700 deg.F. for 9 hr. The
pots were then run out into the yard and allowed to cool slowly.
When cool, the work was taken out of the pots, reheated and quenched
at 1,600 deg.F. to refine the core. It was again reheated to 1,425 deg.F.
and quenched to refine the case. Finally, it was drawn to the proper

Next: Short Method Of Treatment

Previous: Heat-treating Department

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