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Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or b...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pou...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by t...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more br...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be re...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perh...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

The Packing Department


In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where
the work is packed. These are of malleable cast iron, with an internal
vertical flange around the hole A. This fits in a bell on the
end of the cast-iron pipe B, which is luted in position with
fireclay before the packing begins. At C is shown a pot ready
for packing. The crown gears average 10 to 12 in. in diameter and
weigh about 11 lb. each. When placed in the pots, they surround
the central tube, which allows the heat to circulate. Each pot
contains five gears. Two complete scrap gears are in each furnace
(i.e., gears which fail to pass machining inspection), and at
the top of front pot are two or more short segments of scrap gear,
used as test pieces to gage depth of case.

After filling to the top with compound, the lid D is luted on.
Ten pots are then placed in a furnace. It will be noted that the
pots to the right are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, indicating the position
they are to occupy in the furnace.

The cast-iron ball shown at E is small enough to drop through
the pipe B, but will not pass through the hole A in the bottom
of the pot. It is used as a valve to plug the bottom of the pot
to prevent the carburizing compound from dropping through when
removing the carburized gears to the quenching bath.

Without detracting from the high quality of the work, the metallurgist
in this plant has succeeded in cutting out one entire operation
and reducing the time in the hardening room by about 24 hr.

Formerly, the work was carburized at about 1,700 deg.F. for 9 hr. The
pots were then run out into the yard and allowed to cool slowly.
When cool, the work was taken out of the pots, reheated and quenched
at 1,600 deg.F. to refine the core. It was again reheated to 1,425 deg.F.
and quenched to refine the case. Finally, it was drawn to the proper

Next: Short Method Of Treatment

Previous: Heat-treating Department

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