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Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page ...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-tre...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 1...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown e...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty eng...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

The Packing Department


In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where
the work is packed. These are of malleable cast iron, with an internal
vertical flange around the hole A. This fits in a bell on the
end of the cast-iron pipe B, which is luted in position with
fireclay before the packing begins. At C is shown a pot ready
for packing. The crown gears average 10 to 12 in. in diameter and
weigh about 11 lb. each. When placed in the pots, they surround
the central tube, which allows the heat to circulate. Each pot
contains five gears. Two complete scrap gears are in each furnace
(i.e., gears which fail to pass machining inspection), and at
the top of front pot are two or more short segments of scrap gear,
used as test pieces to gage depth of case.

After filling to the top with compound, the lid D is luted on.
Ten pots are then placed in a furnace. It will be noted that the
pots to the right are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, indicating the position
they are to occupy in the furnace.

The cast-iron ball shown at E is small enough to drop through
the pipe B, but will not pass through the hole A in the bottom
of the pot. It is used as a valve to plug the bottom of the pot
to prevent the carburizing compound from dropping through when
removing the carburized gears to the quenching bath.

Without detracting from the high quality of the work, the metallurgist
in this plant has succeeded in cutting out one entire operation
and reducing the time in the hardening room by about 24 hr.

Formerly, the work was carburized at about 1,700 deg.F. for 9 hr. The
pots were then run out into the yard and allowed to cool slowly.
When cool, the work was taken out of the pots, reheated and quenched
at 1,600 deg.F. to refine the core. It was again reheated to 1,425 deg.F.
and quenched to refine the case. Finally, it was drawn to the proper

Next: Short Method Of Treatment

Previous: Heat-treating Department

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