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Steel Making

Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubb...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermoc...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown gra...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed ...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contract...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or l...

Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at defin...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great ...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by ...

The Packing Department


In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where
the work is packed. These are of malleable cast iron, with an internal
vertical flange around the hole A. This fits in a bell on the
end of the cast-iron pipe B, which is luted in position with
fireclay before the packing begins. At C is shown a pot ready
for packing. The crown gears average 10 to 12 in. in diameter and
weigh about 11 lb. each. When placed in the pots, they surround
the central tube, which allows the heat to circulate. Each pot
contains five gears. Two complete scrap gears are in each furnace
(i.e., gears which fail to pass machining inspection), and at
the top of front pot are two or more short segments of scrap gear,
used as test pieces to gage depth of case.

After filling to the top with compound, the lid D is luted on.
Ten pots are then placed in a furnace. It will be noted that the
pots to the right are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, indicating the position
they are to occupy in the furnace.

The cast-iron ball shown at E is small enough to drop through
the pipe B, but will not pass through the hole A in the bottom
of the pot. It is used as a valve to plug the bottom of the pot
to prevent the carburizing compound from dropping through when
removing the carburized gears to the quenching bath.

Without detracting from the high quality of the work, the metallurgist
in this plant has succeeded in cutting out one entire operation
and reducing the time in the hardening room by about 24 hr.

Formerly, the work was carburized at about 1,700 deg.F. for 9 hr. The
pots were then run out into the yard and allowed to cool slowly.
When cool, the work was taken out of the pots, reheated and quenched
at 1,600 deg.F. to refine the core. It was again reheated to 1,425 deg.F.
and quenched to refine the case. Finally, it was drawn to the proper

Next: Short Method Of Treatment

Previous: Heat-treating Department

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