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Steel Making

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrom...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with ...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means ...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, r...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly ...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineer...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical....

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the pe...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

The Packing Department


In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where
the work is packed. These are of malleable cast iron, with an internal
vertical flange around the hole A. This fits in a bell on the
end of the cast-iron pipe B, which is luted in position with
fireclay before the packing begins. At C is shown a pot ready
for packing. The crown gears average 10 to 12 in. in diameter and
weigh about 11 lb. each. When placed in the pots, they surround
the central tube, which allows the heat to circulate. Each pot
contains five gears. Two complete scrap gears are in each furnace
(i.e., gears which fail to pass machining inspection), and at
the top of front pot are two or more short segments of scrap gear,
used as test pieces to gage depth of case.

After filling to the top with compound, the lid D is luted on.
Ten pots are then placed in a furnace. It will be noted that the
pots to the right are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, indicating the position
they are to occupy in the furnace.

The cast-iron ball shown at E is small enough to drop through
the pipe B, but will not pass through the hole A in the bottom
of the pot. It is used as a valve to plug the bottom of the pot
to prevent the carburizing compound from dropping through when
removing the carburized gears to the quenching bath.

Without detracting from the high quality of the work, the metallurgist
in this plant has succeeded in cutting out one entire operation
and reducing the time in the hardening room by about 24 hr.

Formerly, the work was carburized at about 1,700 deg.F. for 9 hr. The
pots were then run out into the yard and allowed to cool slowly.
When cool, the work was taken out of the pots, reheated and quenched
at 1,600 deg.F. to refine the core. It was again reheated to 1,425 deg.F.
and quenched to refine the case. Finally, it was drawn to the proper

Next: Short Method Of Treatment

Previous: Heat-treating Department

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