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Steel Making

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron int...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many ve...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes shou...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of d...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment w...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thick...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pres...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different p...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are ...

The Packing Department


In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where
the work is packed. These are of malleable cast iron, with an internal
vertical flange around the hole A. This fits in a bell on the
end of the cast-iron pipe B, which is luted in position with
fireclay before the packing begins. At C is shown a pot ready
for packing. The crown gears average 10 to 12 in. in diameter and
weigh about 11 lb. each. When placed in the pots, they surround
the central tube, which allows the heat to circulate. Each pot
contains five gears. Two complete scrap gears are in each furnace
(i.e., gears which fail to pass machining inspection), and at
the top of front pot are two or more short segments of scrap gear,
used as test pieces to gage depth of case.

After filling to the top with compound, the lid D is luted on.
Ten pots are then placed in a furnace. It will be noted that the
pots to the right are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, indicating the position
they are to occupy in the furnace.

The cast-iron ball shown at E is small enough to drop through
the pipe B, but will not pass through the hole A in the bottom
of the pot. It is used as a valve to plug the bottom of the pot
to prevent the carburizing compound from dropping through when
removing the carburized gears to the quenching bath.

Without detracting from the high quality of the work, the metallurgist
in this plant has succeeded in cutting out one entire operation
and reducing the time in the hardening room by about 24 hr.

Formerly, the work was carburized at about 1,700 deg.F. for 9 hr. The
pots were then run out into the yard and allowed to cool slowly.
When cool, the work was taken out of the pots, reheated and quenched
at 1,600 deg.F. to refine the core. It was again reheated to 1,425 deg.F.
and quenched to refine the case. Finally, it was drawn to the proper

Next: Short Method Of Treatment

Previous: Heat-treating Department

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