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Steel Making

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of me...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading an...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tun...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from th...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen tex...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is M...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a l...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by g...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, ...



The Packing Department






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where
the work is packed. These are of malleable cast iron, with an internal
vertical flange around the hole A. This fits in a bell on the
end of the cast-iron pipe B, which is luted in position with
fireclay before the packing begins. At C is shown a pot ready
for packing. The crown gears average 10 to 12 in. in diameter and
weigh about 11 lb. each. When placed in the pots, they surround
the central tube, which allows the heat to circulate. Each pot
contains five gears. Two complete scrap gears are in each furnace
(i.e., gears which fail to pass machining inspection), and at
the top of front pot are two or more short segments of scrap gear,
used as test pieces to gage depth of case.



After filling to the top with compound, the lid D is luted on.
Ten pots are then placed in a furnace. It will be noted that the
pots to the right are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, indicating the position
they are to occupy in the furnace.

The cast-iron ball shown at E is small enough to drop through
the pipe B, but will not pass through the hole A in the bottom
of the pot. It is used as a valve to plug the bottom of the pot
to prevent the carburizing compound from dropping through when
removing the carburized gears to the quenching bath.

Without detracting from the high quality of the work, the metallurgist
in this plant has succeeded in cutting out one entire operation
and reducing the time in the hardening room by about 24 hr.

Formerly, the work was carburized at about 1,700 deg.F. for 9 hr. The
pots were then run out into the yard and allowed to cool slowly.
When cool, the work was taken out of the pots, reheated and quenched
at 1,600 deg.F. to refine the core. It was again reheated to 1,425 deg.F.
and quenched to refine the case. Finally, it was drawn to the proper
temper.





Next: Short Method Of Treatment

Previous: Heat-treating Department



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