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Steel Making

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful anne...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is lar...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, us...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold worki...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one whi...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring tempe...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using g...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric f...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the a...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slig...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of pr...



The Packing Department






Category: HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where
the work is packed. These are of malleable cast iron, with an internal
vertical flange around the hole A. This fits in a bell on the
end of the cast-iron pipe B, which is luted in position with
fireclay before the packing begins. At C is shown a pot ready
for packing. The crown gears average 10 to 12 in. in diameter and
weigh about 11 lb. each. When placed in the pots, they surround
the central tube, which allows the heat to circulate. Each pot
contains five gears. Two complete scrap gears are in each furnace
(i.e., gears which fail to pass machining inspection), and at
the top of front pot are two or more short segments of scrap gear,
used as test pieces to gage depth of case.



After filling to the top with compound, the lid D is luted on.
Ten pots are then placed in a furnace. It will be noted that the
pots to the right are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, indicating the position
they are to occupy in the furnace.

The cast-iron ball shown at E is small enough to drop through
the pipe B, but will not pass through the hole A in the bottom
of the pot. It is used as a valve to plug the bottom of the pot
to prevent the carburizing compound from dropping through when
removing the carburized gears to the quenching bath.

Without detracting from the high quality of the work, the metallurgist
in this plant has succeeded in cutting out one entire operation
and reducing the time in the hardening room by about 24 hr.

Formerly, the work was carburized at about 1,700 deg.F. for 9 hr. The
pots were then run out into the yard and allowed to cool slowly.
When cool, the work was taken out of the pots, reheated and quenched
at 1,600 deg.F. to refine the core. It was again reheated to 1,425 deg.F.
and quenched to refine the case. Finally, it was drawn to the proper
temper.





Next: Short Method Of Treatment

Previous: Heat-treating Department



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