There has been very considerable discussion among students of this subject as to the part of the hand on which the Line of Health commences. My own theory, and one that I have proved by over twenty-five years' experience and also watching ... Read more of The Line Of Health Or The Hepatica at Palm Readings.orgInformational Site Network Informational
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Steel Making

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F....

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separa...

Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greate...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or th...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in c...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gea...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also th...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Joh...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, st...

ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gea...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempe...

A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the charac...

Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than ...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as car...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on ...

The Packing Department


In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where
the work is packed. These are of malleable cast iron, with an internal
vertical flange around the hole A. This fits in a bell on the
end of the cast-iron pipe B, which is luted in position with
fireclay before the packing begins. At C is shown a pot ready
for packing. The crown gears average 10 to 12 in. in diameter and
weigh about 11 lb. each. When placed in the pots, they surround
the central tube, which allows the heat to circulate. Each pot
contains five gears. Two complete scrap gears are in each furnace
(i.e., gears which fail to pass machining inspection), and at
the top of front pot are two or more short segments of scrap gear,
used as test pieces to gage depth of case.

After filling to the top with compound, the lid D is luted on.
Ten pots are then placed in a furnace. It will be noted that the
pots to the right are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, indicating the position
they are to occupy in the furnace.

The cast-iron ball shown at E is small enough to drop through
the pipe B, but will not pass through the hole A in the bottom
of the pot. It is used as a valve to plug the bottom of the pot
to prevent the carburizing compound from dropping through when
removing the carburized gears to the quenching bath.

Without detracting from the high quality of the work, the metallurgist
in this plant has succeeded in cutting out one entire operation
and reducing the time in the hardening room by about 24 hr.

Formerly, the work was carburized at about 1,700 deg.F. for 9 hr. The
pots were then run out into the yard and allowed to cool slowly.
When cool, the work was taken out of the pots, reheated and quenched
at 1,600 deg.F. to refine the core. It was again reheated to 1,425 deg.F.
and quenched to refine the case. Finally, it was drawn to the proper

Next: Short Method Of Treatment

Previous: Heat-treating Department

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