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Steel Making

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the he...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore p...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of ...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herew...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the bo...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a ...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to mainta...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for ...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually ...

Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel,...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufa...

Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic func...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is ha...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation...

Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent de...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a tempera...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most co...

The Quenching Tank


The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in
case-hardening--possibly more so than in ordinary tempering. One
reason for this is because of the large quantities of pieces usually
dumped into the tank at a time. One cannot take time to separate
the articles themselves from the case-hardening mixture, and the
whole content of the box is droped into the bath in short order,
as exposure to air of the heated work is fatal to results. Unless
it is split up, it is likely to go to the bottom as a solid mass,
in which case very few of the pieces are properly hardened.

A combination cooling tank is shown in Fig. 38. Water inlet and
outlet pipes are shown and also a drain plug that enables the tank
to be emptied when it is desired to clean out the spent carburizing
material from the bottom. A wire-bottomed tray, framed with angle
iron, is arranged to slide into this tank from the top and rests
upon angle irons screwed to the tank sides. Its function is to
catch the pieces and prevent them from settling to the tank bottom,
and it also makes it easy to remove a batch of work. A bottomless
box of sheet steel is shown at C. This fits into the wire-bottomed
tray and has a number of rods or wires running across it, their
purpose being to break up the mass of material as it comes from
the carbonizing box.

Below the wire-bottomed tray is a perforated cross-pipe that is
connected with a compressed-air line. This is used when case-hardening
for colors. The shop that has no air compressor may rig up a
satisfactory equivalent in the shape of a low-pressure hand-operated
air pump and a receiver tank, for it is not necessary to use
high-pressure air for this purpose. When colors are desired on
case-hardened work, the treatment in quenching is exactly the same
as that previously described except that air is pumped through
this pipe and keeps the water agitated. The addition of a slight
amount of powdered cyanide of potassium to the packing material
used for carburizing will produce stronger colors, and where this is
the sole object, it is best to maintain the box at a dull-red heat.

is necessary.]

The old way of case-hardening was to dump the contents of the box
at the end of the carburizing heat. Later study in the structure
of steel thus treated has caused a change in this procedure, the
use of automobiles and alloy steels probably hastening this result.
The diagrams reproduced in Fig. 39 show why the heat treatment of
case-hardened work is necessary. Starting at A with a close-grained
and tough stock, such as ordinary machinery steel containing from 15
to 20 points of carbon, if such work is quenched on a carbonizing
heat the result will be as shown at B. This gives a core that is
coarse-grained and brittle and an outer case that is fine-grained
and hard, but is likely to flake off, owing to the great difference
in structure between it and the core. Reheating this work beyond
the critical temperature of the core refines this core, closes
the grain and makes it tough, but leaves the case very brittle;
in fact, more so than it was before.

Next: Refining The Grain

Previous: Quenching The Work

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