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Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fa...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimen...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in c...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association w...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of st...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum res...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solu...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-ir...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecti...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either ni...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fu...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and subst...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to hav...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundr...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is parti...



The Modern Hardening Room






Category: HARDENING CARBON STEEL FOR TOOLS

A hardening room of today means a very
different place from the dirty, dark smithshop in the corner with
the open coal forge. There, when we wanted to be somewhat particular,
we sometimes shoveled the coal cinders to one side and piled a great
pile of charcoal on the forge. We now have a complete equipment;
a gas- or oil-heating furnace, good running water, several sizes
of lead pots, and an oil tank large enough to hold a barrel of
oil. By running water, we mean a large tank with overflow pipes
giving a constant supply. The ordinary hardening room equipment
should consist of:

Gas or oil muffle furnace for hardening.
Gas or oil forge furnace.
A good size gas or oil furnace for annealing and case-hardening.
A gas or oil furnace to hold lead pots.
Oil tempering tank, gas- or oil-heated.
Pressure blower.
Large oil tank to hold at least a barrel of oil.
Big water tank with screen trays connected with large pipe from bottom
with overflow.
Straightening press.
The furnace should be connected with pyrometers and tempering tank with
a thermometer.

Beside all this you need a good man. It does not make much difference
how completely the hardening department is fitted up, if you expect
good work, a small percentage of loss and to be able to tackle anything
that comes along, you must have a good man, one who understands
the difference between low- and high-carbon steel, who knows when
particular care must be exercised on particular work. In other
words, a man who knows how his work should be done, and has the
intelligence to follow directions on treatments of steel on which
he has had no experience.

Jewelers' tools, especially for silversmith's work, probably have
to stand the greatest punishment of any all-steel tools and to
make a spoon die so hard that it will not sink under a blow from
an 1,800-lb. hammer with a 4-ft. drop, and still not crack, demands
careful treatment.

To harden such dies, first cover the impression on the die with
paste made from bone dust or lampblack and oil. Place face down
in an iron box partly filled with crushed charcoal, leaving back
of die uncovered so that the heat can be seen at all times. Heat
slowly in furnace to a good cherry red. The heat depends on the
quality and the analysis of steel and the recommended actions of
the steel maker should be carefully followed. When withdrawn from
the fire the die should be quenched as shown in Fig. 80 with the
face of die down and the back a short distance out of the water.
When the back is black, immerse all over.



If such a tank is not at hand, it would pay to rig one up at once,
although a barrel of brine may be used, or the back of the die
may be first immersed to a depth of about 1/2 in. When the piece
is immersed, hold die on an angle as in Fig. 81.



This is for the purpose of expelling all steam bubbles as they
form in contact with hot steel. We are aware of the fact that a
great many toolmakers in jewelry shops still cling to the overhead
bath, as in Fig. 82, but more broken pieces and more dies with
soft spots are due to this method than to all the others combined,
as the water strikes one spot in force, contracting the surface
so much faster than the rest of the die that the results are the
same as if an uneven heating had been given the steel.





Next: Take Time For Hardening

Previous: Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools



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