Manufacturing and Economy of Machinery
All Steel Page 4
Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw, milling cutter or circular saw. Cut clear through the bar; do not nick or break. To cut a piece from an unannealed bar, cut right off with an abrasive saw; do not nick or break. If of lar...
Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. With this bath, the heat can be controlled within 3 deg. The steel is evenly heated without exposure to the air, resulting in work which is not warped and on which there is no scale. The cya...
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimental to all steels. Sulphur causes red-shortness and phosphorus causes cold-shortness. The detrimental effects of these two elements counteract each other to some extent but the content sho...
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to cool in air until it loses its red heat and becomes black and then immediately quenching it in water. This plan works well for very low-carbon steel; but for high-carbon steel what is kno...
Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the heat treatment it is to receive, but this also depends on the kind of work the die is to perform. If the die is for a forging which is machined all over and does not have to be especially cl...
Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Bessemer had received applications from several ironmasters for licenses, which were issued in return for a down payment and a nominal royalty of 25 pence per ton. Among those who started negotia...
Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Johnston on two types of steel: one containing 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.012 per cent phosphorus, and 0.860 per cent copper, and the other 0.365 per cent carbon, 0.053 per cent phosphorus, and ...
Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different packing materials has a different effect upon the work in which it is heated. Charcoal by itself will give a rather light case. Mixed with raw bone it will carburize more rapidly, and still...
Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solution or combination to take place between the ferrite and pearlite, producing a homogeneous mass of small grains of each, the grains of the pearlite being surrounded by grains of ferrite. ...
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has been found, however, that each material possesses a limiting stress, or endurance limit, within which it is safe, no mat...
Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 106 may prove serviceable before furnaces required for plate work, where the doors are often only opened for a moment at a time. This shield can be placed far enough in front of the furnace...
For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a pipe, box or muffle. Arrange the steel so as to allow at least 1 in. of packing, consisting of dry powder ashes, powdered charcoal, mica, etc., between the pieces and the walls of the box ...
Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F. and forge thoroughly and uniformly. If the forging operation is prolonged do not continue forging the tool when the steel begins to stiffen under the hammer. Do not forge below 1,700 deg.F...
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fuels etc., the following data is quoted from a paper by Seth A. Moulton and W. H. Lyman before the Steel Heat Treaters Society in September, 1920. This considers a factory producing 30,0...
Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for carburizing have been generally recognized in the past from points of view as close temperature regulation, decreased attendance, and greater convenience, very little information has been ...
Open Hearth Process
Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Steel For Chisels And Punches
Quenching The Work
Temperature For Annealing
Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
Annealing In Bone
Hardening High-speed Steel
Steel Before The 1850's
Correction By Zero Adjustment
The Penetration Of Carbon