Manufacturing and Economy of Machinery
All Steel Page 9
Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanical injury. For this purpose tubes of various refractory materials are made to act as protectors. These in turn are usually protected by outside metal tubes. Pure wrought iron is largely use...
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' water pyrometer because they can place a number of the balls or weights on the plate in locations where it is difficult to use other pyrometers. One of these pyrometers is shown in section...
Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermocouples as in Fig. 132. Usually the pyrometer is portable, as shown in this case, which is a Brown. Other methods of mounting for this kind of work arc shown in Figs. 133 and 134. The bent ...
Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or the measurement of temperatures, is quite necessary for one engaged in the heat treatment of steel. It is only by careful measurement and control of the heating of steel that the full benefi...
Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great extent upon its structure. The making of the structure begins under the hammer, and the beneficial effects produced in this stage persist through the subsequent operations, provided they a...
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from the pot, especially if the case is of any appreciable depth. The texture of carbon steel will be weakened by the prolonged high heat of carburizing, so that if we need a tough core, we must ...
Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the box by dumping the whole contents into the quenching tank. It is common practice to leave a sieve or wire basket to catch the work, allowing the carburizing material to fall to the bottom of...
Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel is as important as its heating. Quenching baths vary in nature, there being a large number of ways to cool a piece of steel in contrast to the comparatively few ways of heating it. Plai...
Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by those special elements which exist as double carbides in steel. For example, manganese exists as manganese carbide in combination with the iron carbide. The elements that favor the absorpt...
Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gear forgings could be substituted by normalizing the forgings at a temperature of from 1,550 to 1,600 deg.F. The most important criterion for proper normalizing, consisted in allowing the fo...
Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slightly above the critical temperature of the case, this temperature corresponding ordinarily to that of steel having a carbon content of 85 points, When this is again quenched, the temperatu...
Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown graphically in Fig. 65 to the series of illustrations on pages 137 to 144. This was prepared by Thos. Firth & Sons, Ltd., Sheffield, England. The center piece Fig. 65 represents a block ...
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire, of a Scots father (David, 1772-1847) himself a noted contributor to the metallurgy of iron and steel, is, like the American William Kelly, considered by many to have ...
S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat treatments to suit different steels and varying conditions. These have already been referred to on pages 39 to 41 in connection with the different steels used in automobile practice. Thes...
Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a cast-iron screen which forms a table or apron for the furnace. Directly beneath this table is located one of the steel conveyor carts, shown in Fig. 43, which is provided with two wheels at ...
Open Hearth Process
Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Steel For Chisels And Punches
Quenching The Work
Temperature For Annealing
Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
Annealing In Bone
Hardening High-speed Steel
Steel Before The 1850's
Correction By Zero Adjustment
The Penetration Of Carbon