Alloying Elements

: The Working Of Steel

Commercial steels of even the simplest types

are therefore primarily alloys of iron and carbon. Impurities and

their remedies are always present: sulphur, phosphorus, silicon

and manganese--to say nothing of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon oxide

gases, about which we know very little. It has been found that other

metals, if added to well-made steel, produce definite improvements

in certain directions, and these alloy steels have found much

use in the last ten years. Alloy steels, in addition to the

above-mentioned elements, may commonly contain one or more of the

following, in varying amounts: Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr), Vanadium

(Va), Tungsten (W), Molybdenum (Mo). These steels will be discussed

at more length in Chapters III and IV.