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Extending The Time Of Action Of Forces
45. This is one of the most common and most useful of the em...

On The Division Of Labour
241. We have already mentioned what may, perhaps, appear par...

Registering Operations
65. One great advantage which we may derive from machinery is...

Of Price As Measured By Money
201. The money price at which an article sells furnishes us ...

On The Causes And Consequences Of Large Factories
263. On examining the analysis which has been given in chapt...

Of Printing From Cavities
83. The art of printing, in all its numerous departments, is ...

Of Raw Materials
210. Although the cost of any article may be reduced in its ...

On The Exportation Of Machinery
437. A few years only have elapsed, since our workmen were n...

Exerting Forces Too Great For Human Power And Executing Operations Too Delicate For Human Touch
56. It requires some skill and a considerable apparatus to e...

Of Copying By Moulding
112. This method of producing multitudes of individuals havi...

On The Method Of Observing Manufacturies
160. Having now reviewed the mechanical principles which reg...

On The Position Of Large Factories
277. It is found in every country, that the situation of lar...

Of Copying
82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work ...

Of Copying By Stamping
128. This mode of copying is extensively employed in the art...

On The Division Of Labour
217. Perhaps the most important principle on which the econo...

Accumulating Power
20. Whenever the work to be done requires more force for its ...

On Combinations Amongst Masters Or Workmen Against Each Other
353. There exist amongst the workmen of almost all classes, ...

On A New System Of Manufacturing
305. A most erroneous and unfortunate opinion prevails among...

On The Cost Of Each Separate Process In A Manufacture
253. The great competition introduced by machinery, and the ...

On The Influence Of Verification On Price
181. The money price of an article at any given period is us...

Of Copying

82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
large portion of all manufactures, and is one upon which the
cheapness of the articles produced seems greatly to depend. The
principle alluded to is that of copying, taken in its most
extensive sense. Almost unlimited pains are, in some instances,
bestowed on the original, from which a series of copies is to be
produced; and the larger the number of these copies, the more
care and pains can the manufacturer afford to lavish upon the
original. It may thus happen, that the instrument or tool
actually producing the work, shall cost five or even ten thousand
times the price of each individual specimen of its power.

As the system of copying is of so much importance, and of
such extensive use in the arts, it will be convenient to classify
a considerable number of those processes in which it is employed.
The following enumeration however is not offered as a complete
list; and the explanations are restricted to the shortest
possible detail which is consistent with a due regard to making
the subject intelligible.

Operations of copying are effected under the following

by printing from cavities by stamping
by printing from surface by punching
by casting with elongation
by moulding with altered dimensions

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Previous: Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds

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