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Manufacturing

On Combinations Of Masters Against The Public
376. A species of combination occasionally takes place among...

Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds
79. Nothing is more remarkable, and yet less unexpected, than...

On The Influence Of Verification On Price
181. The money price of an article at any given period is us...

Of Money As A Medium Of Exchange
166. In the earlier stages of societies the interchange of t...

Of Printing From Cavities
83. The art of printing, in all its numerous departments, is ...

On The Influence Of Durability On Price
197. Having now considered the circumstances that modify what...

Of Copying With Altered Dimensions
147. Of the pentagraph. This mode of copying is chiefly used ...

Copying With Elongation
140. In this species of copying there exists but little rese...

On Over Manufacturing
284. One of the natural and almost inevitable consequences of...

Sources Of The Advantages Arising From Machinery And Manufactures
1. There exists, perhaps, no single circumstance which disti...

Of Copying
82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work ...

On The Effect Of Machinery In Reducing The Demand For Labour
404. One of the objections most frequently urged against mac...

Increase And Diminution Of Velocity
32. The fatigue produced on the muscles of the human frame d...

On The Causes And Consequences Of Large Factories
263. On examining the analysis which has been given in chapt...

On The Effect Of Taxes And Of Legal Restrictions Upon Manufactures
414. As soon as a tax is put upon any article, the ingenuity ...

On The Duration Of Machinery
340. The time during which a machine will continue to perform...

Proper Circumstances For The Application Of Machinery
329. The first object of machinery, the chief cause of its e...

On The Method Of Observing Manufacturies
160. Having now reviewed the mechanical principles which reg...

On The Position Of Large Factories
277. It is found in every country, that the situation of lar...

On The Division Of Labour
241. We have already mentioned what may, perhaps, appear par...



Of Copying








82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
large portion of all manufactures, and is one upon which the
cheapness of the articles produced seems greatly to depend. The
principle alluded to is that of copying, taken in its most
extensive sense. Almost unlimited pains are, in some instances,
bestowed on the original, from which a series of copies is to be
produced; and the larger the number of these copies, the more
care and pains can the manufacturer afford to lavish upon the
original. It may thus happen, that the instrument or tool
actually producing the work, shall cost five or even ten thousand
times the price of each individual specimen of its power.

As the system of copying is of so much importance, and of
such extensive use in the arts, it will be convenient to classify
a considerable number of those processes in which it is employed.
The following enumeration however is not offered as a complete
list; and the explanations are restricted to the shortest
possible detail which is consistent with a due regard to making
the subject intelligible.

Operations of copying are effected under the following
circumstances:

by printing from cavities by stamping
by printing from surface by punching
by casting with elongation
by moulding with altered dimensions





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