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Manufacturing

On Contriving Machinery
318. The power of inventing mechanical contrivances, and of ...

On The Effect Of Machinery In Reducing The Demand For Labour
404. One of the objections most frequently urged against mac...

Distinction Between Making And Manufacturing
163. The economical principles which regulate the application...

On The Influence Of Verification On Price
181. The money price of an article at any given period is us...

On The Influence Of Durability On Price
197. Having now considered the circumstances that modify what...

On Combinations Amongst Masters Or Workmen Against Each Other
353. There exist amongst the workmen of almost all classes, ...

Registering Operations
65. One great advantage which we may derive from machinery is...

Of Copying By Stamping
128. This mode of copying is extensively employed in the art...

Of Price As Measured By Money
201. The money price at which an article sells furnishes us ...

Copying With Elongation
140. In this species of copying there exists but little rese...

Economy Of The Materials Employed
77. The precision with which all operations by machinery are ...

On The Cost Of Each Separate Process In A Manufacture
253. The great competition introduced by machinery, and the ...

On Over Manufacturing
284. One of the natural and almost inevitable consequences of...

Of Printing From Cavities
83. The art of printing, in all its numerous departments, is ...

Proper Circumstances For The Application Of Machinery
329. The first object of machinery, the chief cause of its e...

Accumulating Power
20. Whenever the work to be done requires more force for its ...

Increase And Diminution Of Velocity
32. The fatigue produced on the muscles of the human frame d...

Of Copying By Moulding
112. This method of producing multitudes of individuals havi...

On The Duration Of Machinery
340. The time during which a machine will continue to perform...

Of Money As A Medium Of Exchange
166. In the earlier stages of societies the interchange of t...



Of Copying








82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
large portion of all manufactures, and is one upon which the
cheapness of the articles produced seems greatly to depend. The
principle alluded to is that of copying, taken in its most
extensive sense. Almost unlimited pains are, in some instances,
bestowed on the original, from which a series of copies is to be
produced; and the larger the number of these copies, the more
care and pains can the manufacturer afford to lavish upon the
original. It may thus happen, that the instrument or tool
actually producing the work, shall cost five or even ten thousand
times the price of each individual specimen of its power.

As the system of copying is of so much importance, and of
such extensive use in the arts, it will be convenient to classify
a considerable number of those processes in which it is employed.
The following enumeration however is not offered as a complete
list; and the explanations are restricted to the shortest
possible detail which is consistent with a due regard to making
the subject intelligible.

Operations of copying are effected under the following
circumstances:

by printing from cavities by stamping
by printing from surface by punching
by casting with elongation
by moulding with altered dimensions





Next: Of Printing From Cavities

Previous: Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds



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