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Extending The Time Of Action Of Forces
45. This is one of the most common and most useful of the em...

On The Causes And Consequences Of Large Factories
263. On examining the analysis which has been given in chapt...

On The Future Prospects Of Manufactures As Connected With Science
453. In reviewing the various processes offered as illustrat...

On The Influence Of Verification On Price
181. The money price of an article at any given period is us...

Exerting Forces Too Great For Human Power And Executing Operations Too Delicate For Human Touch
56. It requires some skill and a considerable apparatus to e...

Of Price As Measured By Money
201. The money price at which an article sells furnishes us ...

On Combinations Amongst Masters Or Workmen Against Each Other
353. There exist amongst the workmen of almost all classes, ...

Distinction Between Making And Manufacturing
163. The economical principles which regulate the application...

Increase And Diminution Of Velocity
32. The fatigue produced on the muscles of the human frame d...

Economy Of The Materials Employed
77. The precision with which all operations by machinery are ...

Of Raw Materials
210. Although the cost of any article may be reduced in its ...

On Contriving Machinery
318. The power of inventing mechanical contrivances, and of ...

On The Effect Of Taxes And Of Legal Restrictions Upon Manufactures
414. As soon as a tax is put upon any article, the ingenuity ...

On Combinations Of Masters Against The Public
376. A species of combination occasionally takes place among...

Saving Time In Natural Operations
47. The process of tanning will furnish us with a striking i...

On The Exportation Of Machinery
437. A few years only have elapsed, since our workmen were n...

On The Division Of Labour
241. We have already mentioned what may, perhaps, appear par...

Of Copying By Casting
105. The art of casting, by pouring substances in a fluid st...

Of Copying With Altered Dimensions
147. Of the pentagraph. This mode of copying is chiefly used ...

On The Effect Of Machinery In Reducing The Demand For Labour
404. One of the objections most frequently urged against mac...

Of Copying

82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
large portion of all manufactures, and is one upon which the
cheapness of the articles produced seems greatly to depend. The
principle alluded to is that of copying, taken in its most
extensive sense. Almost unlimited pains are, in some instances,
bestowed on the original, from which a series of copies is to be
produced; and the larger the number of these copies, the more
care and pains can the manufacturer afford to lavish upon the
original. It may thus happen, that the instrument or tool
actually producing the work, shall cost five or even ten thousand
times the price of each individual specimen of its power.

As the system of copying is of so much importance, and of
such extensive use in the arts, it will be convenient to classify
a considerable number of those processes in which it is employed.
The following enumeration however is not offered as a complete
list; and the explanations are restricted to the shortest
possible detail which is consistent with a due regard to making
the subject intelligible.

Operations of copying are effected under the following

by printing from cavities by stamping
by printing from surface by punching
by casting with elongation
by moulding with altered dimensions

Next: Of Printing From Cavities

Previous: Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds

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