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Manufacturing

Of Copying By Stamping
128. This mode of copying is extensively employed in the art...

Economy Of The Materials Employed
77. The precision with which all operations by machinery are ...

On The Cost Of Each Separate Process In A Manufacture
253. The great competition introduced by machinery, and the ...

On The Division Of Labour
241. We have already mentioned what may, perhaps, appear par...

On The Causes And Consequences Of Large Factories
263. On examining the analysis which has been given in chapt...

Of Copying By Casting
105. The art of casting, by pouring substances in a fluid st...

On The Effect Of Machinery In Reducing The Demand For Labour
404. One of the objections most frequently urged against mac...

On The Position Of Large Factories
277. It is found in every country, that the situation of lar...

Exerting Forces Too Great For Human Power And Executing Operations Too Delicate For Human Touch
56. It requires some skill and a considerable apparatus to e...

Sources Of The Advantages Arising From Machinery And Manufactures
1. There exists, perhaps, no single circumstance which disti...

Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds
79. Nothing is more remarkable, and yet less unexpected, than...

Saving Time In Natural Operations
47. The process of tanning will furnish us with a striking i...

On The Duration Of Machinery
340. The time during which a machine will continue to perform...

Of Printing From Cavities
83. The art of printing, in all its numerous departments, is ...

Copying With Elongation
140. In this species of copying there exists but little rese...

Registering Operations
65. One great advantage which we may derive from machinery is...

Printing From Surface
91. This second department of printing is of more frequent a...

Distinction Between Making And Manufacturing
163. The economical principles which regulate the application...

Accumulating Power
20. Whenever the work to be done requires more force for its ...

Proper Circumstances For The Application Of Machinery
329. The first object of machinery, the chief cause of its e...



Of Copying








82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
large portion of all manufactures, and is one upon which the
cheapness of the articles produced seems greatly to depend. The
principle alluded to is that of copying, taken in its most
extensive sense. Almost unlimited pains are, in some instances,
bestowed on the original, from which a series of copies is to be
produced; and the larger the number of these copies, the more
care and pains can the manufacturer afford to lavish upon the
original. It may thus happen, that the instrument or tool
actually producing the work, shall cost five or even ten thousand
times the price of each individual specimen of its power.

As the system of copying is of so much importance, and of
such extensive use in the arts, it will be convenient to classify
a considerable number of those processes in which it is employed.
The following enumeration however is not offered as a complete
list; and the explanations are restricted to the shortest
possible detail which is consistent with a due regard to making
the subject intelligible.

Operations of copying are effected under the following
circumstances:

by printing from cavities by stamping
by printing from surface by punching
by casting with elongation
by moulding with altered dimensions





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Previous: Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds



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