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Manufacturing

Of Copying With Altered Dimensions
147. Of the pentagraph. This mode of copying is chiefly used ...

On Contriving Machinery
318. The power of inventing mechanical contrivances, and of ...

On The Duration Of Machinery
340. The time during which a machine will continue to perform...

Of Copying By Moulding
112. This method of producing multitudes of individuals havi...

On The Method Of Observing Manufacturies
160. Having now reviewed the mechanical principles which reg...

On A New System Of Manufacturing
305. A most erroneous and unfortunate opinion prevails among...

Saving Time In Natural Operations
47. The process of tanning will furnish us with a striking i...

On The Position Of Large Factories
277. It is found in every country, that the situation of lar...

Of Price As Measured By Money
201. The money price at which an article sells furnishes us ...

Copying With Elongation
140. In this species of copying there exists but little rese...

On Combinations Amongst Masters Or Workmen Against Each Other
353. There exist amongst the workmen of almost all classes, ...

On Combinations Of Masters Against The Public
376. A species of combination occasionally takes place among...

Of Copying
82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work ...

Of Copying By Stamping
128. This mode of copying is extensively employed in the art...

Economy Of The Materials Employed
77. The precision with which all operations by machinery are ...

Accumulating Power
20. Whenever the work to be done requires more force for its ...

Proper Circumstances For The Application Of Machinery
329. The first object of machinery, the chief cause of its e...

On The Cost Of Each Separate Process In A Manufacture
253. The great competition introduced by machinery, and the ...

Of Copying By Casting
105. The art of casting, by pouring substances in a fluid st...

Of Copying By Punching
133. This mode of copying consists in driving a steel punch ...



Of Copying








82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
large portion of all manufactures, and is one upon which the
cheapness of the articles produced seems greatly to depend. The
principle alluded to is that of copying, taken in its most
extensive sense. Almost unlimited pains are, in some instances,
bestowed on the original, from which a series of copies is to be
produced; and the larger the number of these copies, the more
care and pains can the manufacturer afford to lavish upon the
original. It may thus happen, that the instrument or tool
actually producing the work, shall cost five or even ten thousand
times the price of each individual specimen of its power.

As the system of copying is of so much importance, and of
such extensive use in the arts, it will be convenient to classify
a considerable number of those processes in which it is employed.
The following enumeration however is not offered as a complete
list; and the explanations are restricted to the shortest
possible detail which is consistent with a due regard to making
the subject intelligible.

Operations of copying are effected under the following
circumstances:

by printing from cavities by stamping
by printing from surface by punching
by casting with elongation
by moulding with altered dimensions





Next: Of Printing From Cavities

Previous: Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds



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