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Manufacturing

On Combinations Amongst Masters Or Workmen Against Each Other
353. There exist amongst the workmen of almost all classes, ...

On The Exportation Of Machinery
437. A few years only have elapsed, since our workmen were n...

On Contriving Machinery
318. The power of inventing mechanical contrivances, and of ...

Extending The Time Of Action Of Forces
45. This is one of the most common and most useful of the em...

Increase And Diminution Of Velocity
32. The fatigue produced on the muscles of the human frame d...

On The Causes And Consequences Of Large Factories
263. On examining the analysis which has been given in chapt...

Saving Time In Natural Operations
47. The process of tanning will furnish us with a striking i...

Regulating Power
27. Uniformity and steadiness in the rate at which machinery ...

On A New System Of Manufacturing
305. A most erroneous and unfortunate opinion prevails among...

On The Position Of Large Factories
277. It is found in every country, that the situation of lar...

On The Influence Of Verification On Price
181. The money price of an article at any given period is us...

On The Influence Of Durability On Price
197. Having now considered the circumstances that modify what...

On The Division Of Labour
241. We have already mentioned what may, perhaps, appear par...

On The Future Prospects Of Manufactures As Connected With Science
453. In reviewing the various processes offered as illustrat...

Registering Operations
65. One great advantage which we may derive from machinery is...

Exerting Forces Too Great For Human Power And Executing Operations Too Delicate For Human Touch
56. It requires some skill and a considerable apparatus to e...

On The Effect Of Taxes And Of Legal Restrictions Upon Manufactures
414. As soon as a tax is put upon any article, the ingenuity ...

On Combinations Of Masters Against The Public
376. A species of combination occasionally takes place among...

Of Printing From Cavities
83. The art of printing, in all its numerous departments, is ...

On The Method Of Observing Manufacturies
160. Having now reviewed the mechanical principles which reg...



Of Copying








82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
large portion of all manufactures, and is one upon which the
cheapness of the articles produced seems greatly to depend. The
principle alluded to is that of copying, taken in its most
extensive sense. Almost unlimited pains are, in some instances,
bestowed on the original, from which a series of copies is to be
produced; and the larger the number of these copies, the more
care and pains can the manufacturer afford to lavish upon the
original. It may thus happen, that the instrument or tool
actually producing the work, shall cost five or even ten thousand
times the price of each individual specimen of its power.

As the system of copying is of so much importance, and of
such extensive use in the arts, it will be convenient to classify
a considerable number of those processes in which it is employed.
The following enumeration however is not offered as a complete
list; and the explanations are restricted to the shortest
possible detail which is consistent with a due regard to making
the subject intelligible.

Operations of copying are effected under the following
circumstances:

by printing from cavities by stamping
by printing from surface by punching
by casting with elongation
by moulding with altered dimensions





Next: Of Printing From Cavities

Previous: Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds



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