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Manufacturing

Increase And Diminution Of Velocity
32. The fatigue produced on the muscles of the human frame d...

On The Position Of Large Factories
277. It is found in every country, that the situation of lar...

Extending The Time Of Action Of Forces
45. This is one of the most common and most useful of the em...

On Over Manufacturing
284. One of the natural and almost inevitable consequences of...

Exerting Forces Too Great For Human Power And Executing Operations Too Delicate For Human Touch
56. It requires some skill and a considerable apparatus to e...

Of Copying By Casting
105. The art of casting, by pouring substances in a fluid st...

On The Effect Of Taxes And Of Legal Restrictions Upon Manufactures
414. As soon as a tax is put upon any article, the ingenuity ...

Of Copying
82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work ...

On The Duration Of Machinery
340. The time during which a machine will continue to perform...

Enquiries Previous To Commencing Any Manufactory
298. There are many enquiries which ought always to be made ...

On The Cost Of Each Separate Process In A Manufacture
253. The great competition introduced by machinery, and the ...

On The Effect Of Machinery In Reducing The Demand For Labour
404. One of the objections most frequently urged against mac...

Of Copying By Moulding
112. This method of producing multitudes of individuals havi...

Saving Time In Natural Operations
47. The process of tanning will furnish us with a striking i...

Of Money As A Medium Of Exchange
166. In the earlier stages of societies the interchange of t...

Of Price As Measured By Money
201. The money price at which an article sells furnishes us ...

On Combinations Of Masters Against The Public
376. A species of combination occasionally takes place among...

On The Influence Of Verification On Price
181. The money price of an article at any given period is us...

Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds
79. Nothing is more remarkable, and yet less unexpected, than...

On The Future Prospects Of Manufactures As Connected With Science
453. In reviewing the various processes offered as illustrat...



Of Copying








82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
large portion of all manufactures, and is one upon which the
cheapness of the articles produced seems greatly to depend. The
principle alluded to is that of copying, taken in its most
extensive sense. Almost unlimited pains are, in some instances,
bestowed on the original, from which a series of copies is to be
produced; and the larger the number of these copies, the more
care and pains can the manufacturer afford to lavish upon the
original. It may thus happen, that the instrument or tool
actually producing the work, shall cost five or even ten thousand
times the price of each individual specimen of its power.

As the system of copying is of so much importance, and of
such extensive use in the arts, it will be convenient to classify
a considerable number of those processes in which it is employed.
The following enumeration however is not offered as a complete
list; and the explanations are restricted to the shortest
possible detail which is consistent with a due regard to making
the subject intelligible.

Operations of copying are effected under the following
circumstances:

by printing from cavities by stamping
by printing from surface by punching
by casting with elongation
by moulding with altered dimensions





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Previous: Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds



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