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Manufacturing

Copying With Elongation
140. In this species of copying there exists but little rese...

On The Duration Of Machinery
340. The time during which a machine will continue to perform...

Of Copying By Moulding
112. This method of producing multitudes of individuals havi...

Of Raw Materials
210. Although the cost of any article may be reduced in its ...

Economy Of The Materials Employed
77. The precision with which all operations by machinery are ...

Enquiries Previous To Commencing Any Manufactory
298. There are many enquiries which ought always to be made ...

Sources Of The Advantages Arising From Machinery And Manufactures
1. There exists, perhaps, no single circumstance which disti...

On The Division Of Labour
241. We have already mentioned what may, perhaps, appear par...

On A New System Of Manufacturing
305. A most erroneous and unfortunate opinion prevails among...

On Combinations Amongst Masters Or Workmen Against Each Other
353. There exist amongst the workmen of almost all classes, ...

Of Copying By Stamping
128. This mode of copying is extensively employed in the art...

On The Position Of Large Factories
277. It is found in every country, that the situation of lar...

Accumulating Power
20. Whenever the work to be done requires more force for its ...

Of Copying With Altered Dimensions
147. Of the pentagraph. This mode of copying is chiefly used ...

Proper Circumstances For The Application Of Machinery
329. The first object of machinery, the chief cause of its e...

On The Cost Of Each Separate Process In A Manufacture
253. The great competition introduced by machinery, and the ...

Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds
79. Nothing is more remarkable, and yet less unexpected, than...

Increase And Diminution Of Velocity
32. The fatigue produced on the muscles of the human frame d...

Printing From Surface
91. This second department of printing is of more frequent a...

On The Effect Of Taxes And Of Legal Restrictions Upon Manufactures
414. As soon as a tax is put upon any article, the ingenuity ...



Of Copying








82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
large portion of all manufactures, and is one upon which the
cheapness of the articles produced seems greatly to depend. The
principle alluded to is that of copying, taken in its most
extensive sense. Almost unlimited pains are, in some instances,
bestowed on the original, from which a series of copies is to be
produced; and the larger the number of these copies, the more
care and pains can the manufacturer afford to lavish upon the
original. It may thus happen, that the instrument or tool
actually producing the work, shall cost five or even ten thousand
times the price of each individual specimen of its power.

As the system of copying is of so much importance, and of
such extensive use in the arts, it will be convenient to classify
a considerable number of those processes in which it is employed.
The following enumeration however is not offered as a complete
list; and the explanations are restricted to the shortest
possible detail which is consistent with a due regard to making
the subject intelligible.

Operations of copying are effected under the following
circumstances:

by printing from cavities by stamping
by printing from surface by punching
by casting with elongation
by moulding with altered dimensions





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Previous: Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds



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