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Manufacturing

On The Duration Of Machinery
340. The time during which a machine will continue to perform...

Proper Circumstances For The Application Of Machinery
329. The first object of machinery, the chief cause of its e...

Of Copying
82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work ...

On Over Manufacturing
284. One of the natural and almost inevitable consequences of...

Printing From Surface
91. This second department of printing is of more frequent a...

On Contriving Machinery
318. The power of inventing mechanical contrivances, and of ...

On The Division Of Labour
241. We have already mentioned what may, perhaps, appear par...

On The Cost Of Each Separate Process In A Manufacture
253. The great competition introduced by machinery, and the ...

On The Exportation Of Machinery
437. A few years only have elapsed, since our workmen were n...

On The Position Of Large Factories
277. It is found in every country, that the situation of lar...

On The Causes And Consequences Of Large Factories
263. On examining the analysis which has been given in chapt...

On The Effect Of Machinery In Reducing The Demand For Labour
404. One of the objections most frequently urged against mac...

On Combinations Of Masters Against The Public
376. A species of combination occasionally takes place among...

Distinction Between Making And Manufacturing
163. The economical principles which regulate the application...

On The Effect Of Taxes And Of Legal Restrictions Upon Manufactures
414. As soon as a tax is put upon any article, the ingenuity ...

Of Price As Measured By Money
201. The money price at which an article sells furnishes us ...

Exerting Forces Too Great For Human Power And Executing Operations Too Delicate For Human Touch
56. It requires some skill and a considerable apparatus to e...

On A New System Of Manufacturing
305. A most erroneous and unfortunate opinion prevails among...

Saving Time In Natural Operations
47. The process of tanning will furnish us with a striking i...

On The Method Of Observing Manufacturies
160. Having now reviewed the mechanical principles which reg...



Of Copying








82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
large portion of all manufactures, and is one upon which the
cheapness of the articles produced seems greatly to depend. The
principle alluded to is that of copying, taken in its most
extensive sense. Almost unlimited pains are, in some instances,
bestowed on the original, from which a series of copies is to be
produced; and the larger the number of these copies, the more
care and pains can the manufacturer afford to lavish upon the
original. It may thus happen, that the instrument or tool
actually producing the work, shall cost five or even ten thousand
times the price of each individual specimen of its power.

As the system of copying is of so much importance, and of
such extensive use in the arts, it will be convenient to classify
a considerable number of those processes in which it is employed.
The following enumeration however is not offered as a complete
list; and the explanations are restricted to the shortest
possible detail which is consistent with a due regard to making
the subject intelligible.

Operations of copying are effected under the following
circumstances:

by printing from cavities by stamping
by printing from surface by punching
by casting with elongation
by moulding with altered dimensions





Next: Of Printing From Cavities

Previous: Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds



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