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Manufacturing

On The Influence Of Verification On Price
181. The money price of an article at any given period is us...

Of Raw Materials
210. Although the cost of any article may be reduced in its ...

Of Copying With Altered Dimensions
147. Of the pentagraph. This mode of copying is chiefly used ...

Copying With Elongation
140. In this species of copying there exists but little rese...

On The Method Of Observing Manufacturies
160. Having now reviewed the mechanical principles which reg...

Of Copying By Punching
133. This mode of copying consists in driving a steel punch ...

Of Copying By Casting
105. The art of casting, by pouring substances in a fluid st...

Of Money As A Medium Of Exchange
166. In the earlier stages of societies the interchange of t...

On Over Manufacturing
284. One of the natural and almost inevitable consequences of...

On Contriving Machinery
318. The power of inventing mechanical contrivances, and of ...

On The Future Prospects Of Manufactures As Connected With Science
453. In reviewing the various processes offered as illustrat...

Registering Operations
65. One great advantage which we may derive from machinery is...

Printing From Surface
91. This second department of printing is of more frequent a...

Distinction Between Making And Manufacturing
163. The economical principles which regulate the application...

On The Effect Of Taxes And Of Legal Restrictions Upon Manufactures
414. As soon as a tax is put upon any article, the ingenuity ...

Sources Of The Advantages Arising From Machinery And Manufactures
1. There exists, perhaps, no single circumstance which disti...

Extending The Time Of Action Of Forces
45. This is one of the most common and most useful of the em...

On The Cost Of Each Separate Process In A Manufacture
253. The great competition introduced by machinery, and the ...

On The Position Of Large Factories
277. It is found in every country, that the situation of lar...

Of Printing From Cavities
83. The art of printing, in all its numerous departments, is ...



Of Copying








82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
large portion of all manufactures, and is one upon which the
cheapness of the articles produced seems greatly to depend. The
principle alluded to is that of copying, taken in its most
extensive sense. Almost unlimited pains are, in some instances,
bestowed on the original, from which a series of copies is to be
produced; and the larger the number of these copies, the more
care and pains can the manufacturer afford to lavish upon the
original. It may thus happen, that the instrument or tool
actually producing the work, shall cost five or even ten thousand
times the price of each individual specimen of its power.

As the system of copying is of so much importance, and of
such extensive use in the arts, it will be convenient to classify
a considerable number of those processes in which it is employed.
The following enumeration however is not offered as a complete
list; and the explanations are restricted to the shortest
possible detail which is consistent with a due regard to making
the subject intelligible.

Operations of copying are effected under the following
circumstances:

by printing from cavities by stamping
by printing from surface by punching
by casting with elongation
by moulding with altered dimensions





Next: Of Printing From Cavities

Previous: Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds



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