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On Combinations Amongst Masters Or Workmen Against Each Other
353. There exist amongst the workmen of almost all classes, ...

Of Money As A Medium Of Exchange
166. In the earlier stages of societies the interchange of t...

Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds
79. Nothing is more remarkable, and yet less unexpected, than...

On The Position Of Large Factories
277. It is found in every country, that the situation of lar...

On The Duration Of Machinery
340. The time during which a machine will continue to perform...

Printing From Surface
91. This second department of printing is of more frequent a...

Accumulating Power
20. Whenever the work to be done requires more force for its ...

Of Copying By Punching
133. This mode of copying consists in driving a steel punch ...

Economy Of The Materials Employed
77. The precision with which all operations by machinery are ...

Extending The Time Of Action Of Forces
45. This is one of the most common and most useful of the em...

Of Printing From Cavities
83. The art of printing, in all its numerous departments, is ...

On The Future Prospects Of Manufactures As Connected With Science
453. In reviewing the various processes offered as illustrat...

Saving Time In Natural Operations
47. The process of tanning will furnish us with a striking i...

Of Copying With Altered Dimensions
147. Of the pentagraph. This mode of copying is chiefly used ...

On The Division Of Labour
217. Perhaps the most important principle on which the econo...

On The Influence Of Verification On Price
181. The money price of an article at any given period is us...

On The Division Of Labour
241. We have already mentioned what may, perhaps, appear par...

On The Effect Of Machinery In Reducing The Demand For Labour
404. One of the objections most frequently urged against mac...

Of Price As Measured By Money
201. The money price at which an article sells furnishes us ...

Sources Of The Advantages Arising From Machinery And Manufactures
1. There exists, perhaps, no single circumstance which disti...

Of Copying

82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
large portion of all manufactures, and is one upon which the
cheapness of the articles produced seems greatly to depend. The
principle alluded to is that of copying, taken in its most
extensive sense. Almost unlimited pains are, in some instances,
bestowed on the original, from which a series of copies is to be
produced; and the larger the number of these copies, the more
care and pains can the manufacturer afford to lavish upon the
original. It may thus happen, that the instrument or tool
actually producing the work, shall cost five or even ten thousand
times the price of each individual specimen of its power.

As the system of copying is of so much importance, and of
such extensive use in the arts, it will be convenient to classify
a considerable number of those processes in which it is employed.
The following enumeration however is not offered as a complete
list; and the explanations are restricted to the shortest
possible detail which is consistent with a due regard to making
the subject intelligible.

Operations of copying are effected under the following

by printing from cavities by stamping
by printing from surface by punching
by casting with elongation
by moulding with altered dimensions

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