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Manufacturing

Increase And Diminution Of Velocity
32. The fatigue produced on the muscles of the human frame d...

On The Cost Of Each Separate Process In A Manufacture
253. The great competition introduced by machinery, and the ...

Of Raw Materials
210. Although the cost of any article may be reduced in its ...

Of Copying By Stamping
128. This mode of copying is extensively employed in the art...

On The Causes And Consequences Of Large Factories
263. On examining the analysis which has been given in chapt...

Of Copying With Altered Dimensions
147. Of the pentagraph. This mode of copying is chiefly used ...

Registering Operations
65. One great advantage which we may derive from machinery is...

Printing From Surface
91. This second department of printing is of more frequent a...

On Contriving Machinery
318. The power of inventing mechanical contrivances, and of ...

Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds
79. Nothing is more remarkable, and yet less unexpected, than...

On The Influence Of Durability On Price
197. Having now considered the circumstances that modify what...

Accumulating Power
20. Whenever the work to be done requires more force for its ...

Copying With Elongation
140. In this species of copying there exists but little rese...

Economy Of The Materials Employed
77. The precision with which all operations by machinery are ...

Of Copying By Moulding
112. This method of producing multitudes of individuals havi...

Enquiries Previous To Commencing Any Manufactory
298. There are many enquiries which ought always to be made ...

On Combinations Of Masters Against The Public
376. A species of combination occasionally takes place among...

On The Exportation Of Machinery
437. A few years only have elapsed, since our workmen were n...

On Combinations Amongst Masters Or Workmen Against Each Other
353. There exist amongst the workmen of almost all classes, ...

Of Copying
82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work ...



Of Copying








82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
large portion of all manufactures, and is one upon which the
cheapness of the articles produced seems greatly to depend. The
principle alluded to is that of copying, taken in its most
extensive sense. Almost unlimited pains are, in some instances,
bestowed on the original, from which a series of copies is to be
produced; and the larger the number of these copies, the more
care and pains can the manufacturer afford to lavish upon the
original. It may thus happen, that the instrument or tool
actually producing the work, shall cost five or even ten thousand
times the price of each individual specimen of its power.

As the system of copying is of so much importance, and of
such extensive use in the arts, it will be convenient to classify
a considerable number of those processes in which it is employed.
The following enumeration however is not offered as a complete
list; and the explanations are restricted to the shortest
possible detail which is consistent with a due regard to making
the subject intelligible.

Operations of copying are effected under the following
circumstances:

by printing from cavities by stamping
by printing from surface by punching
by casting with elongation
by moulding with altered dimensions





Next: Of Printing From Cavities

Previous: Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds



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