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Manufacturing

Of Copying By Punching
133. This mode of copying consists in driving a steel punch ...

On The Division Of Labour
217. Perhaps the most important principle on which the econo...

Sources Of The Advantages Arising From Machinery And Manufactures
1. There exists, perhaps, no single circumstance which disti...

On A New System Of Manufacturing
305. A most erroneous and unfortunate opinion prevails among...

On Combinations Amongst Masters Or Workmen Against Each Other
353. There exist amongst the workmen of almost all classes, ...

Of Money As A Medium Of Exchange
166. In the earlier stages of societies the interchange of t...

Increase And Diminution Of Velocity
32. The fatigue produced on the muscles of the human frame d...

Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds
79. Nothing is more remarkable, and yet less unexpected, than...

Proper Circumstances For The Application Of Machinery
329. The first object of machinery, the chief cause of its e...

On Contriving Machinery
318. The power of inventing mechanical contrivances, and of ...

Exerting Forces Too Great For Human Power And Executing Operations Too Delicate For Human Touch
56. It requires some skill and a considerable apparatus to e...

Distinction Between Making And Manufacturing
163. The economical principles which regulate the application...

Regulating Power
27. Uniformity and steadiness in the rate at which machinery ...

On The Causes And Consequences Of Large Factories
263. On examining the analysis which has been given in chapt...

Copying With Elongation
140. In this species of copying there exists but little rese...

On The Cost Of Each Separate Process In A Manufacture
253. The great competition introduced by machinery, and the ...

On The Duration Of Machinery
340. The time during which a machine will continue to perform...

Printing From Surface
91. This second department of printing is of more frequent a...

On Combinations Of Masters Against The Public
376. A species of combination occasionally takes place among...

Accumulating Power
20. Whenever the work to be done requires more force for its ...



Of Copying








82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
large portion of all manufactures, and is one upon which the
cheapness of the articles produced seems greatly to depend. The
principle alluded to is that of copying, taken in its most
extensive sense. Almost unlimited pains are, in some instances,
bestowed on the original, from which a series of copies is to be
produced; and the larger the number of these copies, the more
care and pains can the manufacturer afford to lavish upon the
original. It may thus happen, that the instrument or tool
actually producing the work, shall cost five or even ten thousand
times the price of each individual specimen of its power.

As the system of copying is of so much importance, and of
such extensive use in the arts, it will be convenient to classify
a considerable number of those processes in which it is employed.
The following enumeration however is not offered as a complete
list; and the explanations are restricted to the shortest
possible detail which is consistent with a due regard to making
the subject intelligible.

Operations of copying are effected under the following
circumstances:

by printing from cavities by stamping
by printing from surface by punching
by casting with elongation
by moulding with altered dimensions





Next: Of Printing From Cavities

Previous: Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds



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