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Manufacturing

On The Effect Of Machinery In Reducing The Demand For Labour
404. One of the objections most frequently urged against mac...

On The Division Of Labour
241. We have already mentioned what may, perhaps, appear par...

Saving Time In Natural Operations
47. The process of tanning will furnish us with a striking i...

Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds
79. Nothing is more remarkable, and yet less unexpected, than...

Sources Of The Advantages Arising From Machinery And Manufactures
1. There exists, perhaps, no single circumstance which disti...

Of Copying By Punching
133. This mode of copying consists in driving a steel punch ...

Of Price As Measured By Money
201. The money price at which an article sells furnishes us ...

On Over Manufacturing
284. One of the natural and almost inevitable consequences of...

On The Division Of Labour
217. Perhaps the most important principle on which the econo...

Increase And Diminution Of Velocity
32. The fatigue produced on the muscles of the human frame d...

Enquiries Previous To Commencing Any Manufactory
298. There are many enquiries which ought always to be made ...

Of Money As A Medium Of Exchange
166. In the earlier stages of societies the interchange of t...

On The Effect Of Taxes And Of Legal Restrictions Upon Manufactures
414. As soon as a tax is put upon any article, the ingenuity ...

Proper Circumstances For The Application Of Machinery
329. The first object of machinery, the chief cause of its e...

Of Raw Materials
210. Although the cost of any article may be reduced in its ...

Registering Operations
65. One great advantage which we may derive from machinery is...

On The Cost Of Each Separate Process In A Manufacture
253. The great competition introduced by machinery, and the ...

On The Duration Of Machinery
340. The time during which a machine will continue to perform...

Accumulating Power
20. Whenever the work to be done requires more force for its ...

Economy Of The Materials Employed
77. The precision with which all operations by machinery are ...



Of Copying








82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work
produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very
large portion of all manufactures, and is one upon which the
cheapness of the articles produced seems greatly to depend. The
principle alluded to is that of copying, taken in its most
extensive sense. Almost unlimited pains are, in some instances,
bestowed on the original, from which a series of copies is to be
produced; and the larger the number of these copies, the more
care and pains can the manufacturer afford to lavish upon the
original. It may thus happen, that the instrument or tool
actually producing the work, shall cost five or even ten thousand
times the price of each individual specimen of its power.

As the system of copying is of so much importance, and of
such extensive use in the arts, it will be convenient to classify
a considerable number of those processes in which it is employed.
The following enumeration however is not offered as a complete
list; and the explanations are restricted to the shortest
possible detail which is consistent with a due regard to making
the subject intelligible.

Operations of copying are effected under the following
circumstances:

by printing from cavities by stamping
by printing from surface by punching
by casting with elongation
by moulding with altered dimensions





Next: Of Printing From Cavities

Previous: Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds



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