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Manufacturing

On Combinations Of Masters Against The Public
376. A species of combination occasionally takes place among...

On The Future Prospects Of Manufactures As Connected With Science
453. In reviewing the various processes offered as illustrat...

On Contriving Machinery
318. The power of inventing mechanical contrivances, and of ...

On The Cost Of Each Separate Process In A Manufacture
253. The great competition introduced by machinery, and the ...

Increase And Diminution Of Velocity
32. The fatigue produced on the muscles of the human frame d...

On The Effect Of Machinery In Reducing The Demand For Labour
404. One of the objections most frequently urged against mac...

Enquiries Previous To Commencing Any Manufactory
298. There are many enquiries which ought always to be made ...

Accumulating Power
20. Whenever the work to be done requires more force for its ...

Economy Of The Materials Employed
77. The precision with which all operations by machinery are ...

Extending The Time Of Action Of Forces
45. This is one of the most common and most useful of the em...

Of Copying
82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work ...

On Combinations Amongst Masters Or Workmen Against Each Other
353. There exist amongst the workmen of almost all classes, ...

On The Influence Of Verification On Price
181. The money price of an article at any given period is us...

Of Price As Measured By Money
201. The money price at which an article sells furnishes us ...

On The Division Of Labour
217. Perhaps the most important principle on which the econo...

Of Copying By Stamping
128. This mode of copying is extensively employed in the art...

On The Division Of Labour
241. We have already mentioned what may, perhaps, appear par...

Of Copying With Altered Dimensions
147. Of the pentagraph. This mode of copying is chiefly used ...

On The Influence Of Durability On Price
197. Having now considered the circumstances that modify what...

Of Copying By Moulding
112. This method of producing multitudes of individuals havi...



Of Copying By Stamping








128. This mode of copying is extensively employed in the
arts. It is generally executed by means of large presses worked
with a screw and heavy flywheel. The materials on which the
copies are impressed are most frequently metals, and the process
is sometimes executed when they are hot, and in one case when the
metal is in a state between solidity and fluidity.

129. Coins and medals. The whole of the coins which circulate
as money are produced by this mode of copying. The screw presses
are either worked by manual labour, by water, or by steam power.
The mint which was sent a few years since to Calcutta was capable
of coining 200,000 pieces a day. Medals, which usually have their
figures in higher relief than coins, are produced by similar
means; but a single blow is rarely sufficient to bring them to
perfection, and the compression of the metal which arises from
the first blow renders it too hard to receive many subsequent
blows without injury to the die. It is therefore, after being
struck, removed to a furnace, in which it is carefully heated
red-hot and annealed, after which operation it is again placed
between the dies, and receives additional blows. For medals, on
which the figures are very prominent, these processes must be
repeated many times. One of the largest medals hitherto struck
underwent them nearly a hundred times before it was completed.

130. Ornaments for military accoutrements, and furniture.
These are usually of brass, and are stamped up out of solid or
sheet brass by placing it between dies, and allowing a heavy
weight to drop upon the upper die from a height of from five to
fifteen feet.

131. Buttons and nail heads. Buttons embossed with crests or
other devices are produced by the same means; and some of those
which are plain receive their hemispherical form from the dies in
which they are struck. The heads of several kinds of nails which
are portions of spheres, or polyhedrons, are also formed by these
means.

132. Of a process for copying, called in France clichee. This
curious method of copying by stamping is applied to medals, and
in some cases to forming stereotype plates. There exists a range
of temperature previous to the melting point of several of the
alloys of lead, tin, and antimony, in which the compound is
neither solid, nor yet fluid. In this kind of pasty state it is
placed in a box under a die, which descends upon it with
considerable force. The blow drives the metal into the finest
lines of the die, and the coldness of the latter immediately
solidifies the whole mass. A quantity of the half-melted metal is
scattered in all directions by the blow, and is retained by the
sides of the box in which the process is carried on. The work
thus produced is admirable for its sharpness, but has not the
finished form of a piece just leaving the coining-press: the
sides are ragged, and it must be trimmed, and its thickness
equalized in the lathe.





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