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On Combinations Of Masters Against The Public
376. A species of combination occasionally takes place among...

Accumulating Power
20. Whenever the work to be done requires more force for its ...

Of Copying
82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work ...

On The Division Of Labour
241. We have already mentioned what may, perhaps, appear par...

Copying With Elongation
140. In this species of copying there exists but little rese...

On Over Manufacturing
284. One of the natural and almost inevitable consequences of...

Proper Circumstances For The Application Of Machinery
329. The first object of machinery, the chief cause of its e...

On Combinations Amongst Masters Or Workmen Against Each Other
353. There exist amongst the workmen of almost all classes, ...

Increase And Diminution Of Velocity
32. The fatigue produced on the muscles of the human frame d...

Extending The Time Of Action Of Forces
45. This is one of the most common and most useful of the em...

On The Position Of Large Factories
277. It is found in every country, that the situation of lar...

Regulating Power
27. Uniformity and steadiness in the rate at which machinery ...

Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds
79. Nothing is more remarkable, and yet less unexpected, than...

On The Duration Of Machinery
340. The time during which a machine will continue to perform...

On The Cost Of Each Separate Process In A Manufacture
253. The great competition introduced by machinery, and the ...

On The Influence Of Verification On Price
181. The money price of an article at any given period is us...

Of Copying With Altered Dimensions
147. Of the pentagraph. This mode of copying is chiefly used ...

Of Copying By Moulding
112. This method of producing multitudes of individuals havi...

Of Printing From Cavities
83. The art of printing, in all its numerous departments, is ...

Saving Time In Natural Operations
47. The process of tanning will furnish us with a striking i...

Of Copying By Punching

133. This mode of copying consists in driving a steel punch
through the substance to be cut, either by a blow or by pressure.
In some cases the object is to copy the aperture, and the
substance separated from the plate is rejected; in other cases
the small pieces cut out are the objects of the workman's labour.

134. Punching iron plate for boilers. The steel punch used
for this purpose is from three-eighths to three-quarters of an
inch in diameter, and drives out a circular disk from a plate of
iron from one-quarter to five eighths of an inch thick.

135. Punching tinned iron. The ornamental patterns of open
work which decorate the tinned and japanned wares in general use,
are rarely punched by the workman who makes them. In London the
art of punching out these patterns in screw-presses is carried on
as a separate trade; and large quantities of sheet tin are thus
perforated for cullenders, wine-strainers, borders of waiters,
and other similar purposes. The perfection and the precision to
which the art has been carried are remarkable. Sheets of copper,
too, are punched with small holes about the hundredth of an inch
in diameter, in such multitudes that more of the sheet metal is
removed than remains behind; and plates of tin have been
perforated with above three thousand holes in each square inch.

136. The inlaid plates of brass and rosewood, called buhl
work, which ornament our furniture, are, in some instances,
formed by punching; but in this case, both the parts cut out, and
those which remain, are in many cases employed. In the remaining
illustrations of the art of copying by punching, the part made
use of is that which is punched out.

137. Cards for guns. The substitution of a circular disk of
thin card instead of paper, for retaining in its place the charge
of a fowling-piece, is attended with considerable advantage. It
would, however, be of little avail, unless an easy method was
contrived of producing an unlimited number of cards, each exactly
fitting the bore of the barrel. The small steel tool used for
this purpose cuts out innumerable circles similar to its cutting
end, each of which precisely fills the barrel for which it was

138. Ornaments of gilt paper. The golden stars, leaves, and
other devices, sold in shops for the purpose of ornamenting
articles made of paper and pasteboard, and other fancy works, are
cut by punches of various forms out of sheets of gilt paper.

139. Steel chains. The chain used in connecting the
mainspring and fusee in watches and clocks, is composed of small
pieces of sheet steel, and it is of great importance that each of
these pieces should be of exactly the same size. The links are of
two sorts; one of them consisting of a single oblong piece of
steel with two holes in it, and the other formed by connecting
two of the same pieces of steel, placed parallel to each other,
and at a small distance apart, by two rivets. The two kinds of
links occur alternately in the chain: each end of the single
pieces being placed between the ends of two others, and connected
with them by a rivet passing through all three. If the rivet
holes in the pieces for the double links are not precisely at
equal distances, the chain will not be straight, and will,
consequently, be unfit for its purpose.

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