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THE FORGING OF STEEL





Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, stock less than 9/16-in. comes in coils. Stock 5/8-in. and larger comes in rods. Ball stock is designated in thousandths so that 5/8-in. rods are known as ...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation must be carefully supervised. This is especially true because of the tendency to place unskilled and ignorant men as furnace-tenders and hammer men. The...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are commonly performed, forging usually means working heated steel. Heating is therefore a vita...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the austenitic state. (See page 108.) It is then soft and ductile. As the steel is heated above the critical temperature the size of the austenite crystals ...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of cold-rolled steel. Heat treatment of cold-worked steel is a very delicate operation. Cold working hardens and strengthens steel. It also introduces intern...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F. and forge thoroughly and uniformly. If the forging operation is prolonged do not continue forging the tool when the steel begins to stiffen under the ham...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not hammer steel when it cools down to a dark cherry red, or just below its hardening point, as this creates surface cracks. ...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thoroughly. Do not under any circumstances attempt to harden at the forging heat. After cooling from forging reheat to about 1,450 deg.F. and cool slowly so as to...

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on the percentage of each element contained in the steel. Steel containing from 1/2 to 1 per cent chromium and from 1-1/2 to 3-1/2 per cent nickel, with a ca...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-treating them to meet the specifications demanded by some of the foreign governments led Wheelock, Lovejoy & Company to establish a complete plant for this ...