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PYROMETRY AND PYROMETERS





Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fuels etc., the following data is quoted from a paper by Seth A. Moulton and W. H. Lyman before the Steel Heat Treaters Society in September, 1920. This...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or the measurement of temperatures, is quite necessary for one engaged in the heat treatment of steel. It is only by careful measurement and control of the he...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' water pyrometer because they can place a number of the balls or weights on the plate in locations where it is difficult to use other pyrometers. One of t...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of temperatures, between, say, 700 and 2,500 deg.F., was made more simple and precise. The theory of the thermo-couple is simple; it is that if two bars, r...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely necessary that a measuring instrument be used which will give the operator an exact reading of heat in furnace. There are a number of instruments and devices...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one which does not necessitate the use of an expensive laboratory equipment is that based upon determining the melting point of common table salt (sodium chlori...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown electromotive force, the new couple may be checked against a standard instrument, placing the two bare couples side by side in a suitable tube and taking f...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured, that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to the recording instrument are kept i...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and substantial in that it is not affected by the jar and vibration of the factory or the forge shop. Large or small couples, long or short leads can be used with...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Company show different applications of the thermo-couples to furnaces of various kinds. Figure 118 shows an oil-fired furnace with a simple vertical installati...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring temperature are sketched in Fig. 123. The instrument is light and portable, and can be sighted as easily as an opera glass. The telescope, which is hel...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is largely used. This is a comparative method. By means of the rheostat the current through the lamp is adjusted until the brightness of the filament is just eq...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrometer is dependent on the difference in temperature between its hot junction, inside the furnace, and the cold junction, or opposite end of the thermo-cou...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means of which the pointer can be set to any actual cold-junction temperature. If the cold junction of the thermo-couple is in a temperature of 100 deg.F., the ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same material as the thermo-couple, the cold junction can be removed from the head of the thermo-couple to a point 10, 20 or 50 ft. distant from the furnace, where th...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to maintain an operator at a central pyrometer, and by colored electric lights at the furnaces, signal whether the temperatures are correct or not. It is common p...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the Brown indicating high resistance pyrometer with the exception that the pointer is depressed at intervals of every 10 sec. upon contact-making devices. No...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermocouples as in Fig. 132. Usually the pyrometer is portable, as shown in this case, which is a Brown. Other methods of mounting for this kind of work arc sh...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanical injury. For this purpose tubes of various refractory materials are made to act as protectors. These in turn are usually protected by outside metal tube...