Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by the
various colors, or oxides, which appear on steel in tempering.
The figures shown are from five different sources and while the
variations are not gr...
High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed down
from father to son. The manufacture of tool steel is still an art
which, by the aid of science, has lost much of its secrecy; yet
tool steel is toda...
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the
result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted
to the steel by the addition of different elements and there is a
wide range of ...
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known
to be detrimental to all steels. Sulphur causes red-shortness
and phosphorus causes cold-shortness. The detrimental effects
of these two elements counteract each other ...
Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great extent
upon its structure. The making of the structure begins under the
hammer, and the beneficial effects produced in this stage persist
through the sub...
Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels. The
most ordinary tools used are for lathes and planers. The forging
should be done at carbon-steel heat. Rough-grind while still hot
and preheat to ab...
Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw, milling
cutter or circular saw. Cut clear through the bar; do not nick or
break. To cut a piece from an unannealed bar, cut right off with
an abrasive s...
Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly
desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scaling
heat, that is a lemon heat (1,800 to 2,000 deg.F.), and forge uniformly.
For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a pipe,
box or muffle. Arrange the steel so as to allow at least 1 in.
of packing, consisting of dry powder ashes, powdered charcoal,
mica, etc., between t...
Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed steels
by various makers, it is always advisable to follow the directions
of each when using his brand of steel. In the absence of specific
Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is particularly
desirable in the winter. Then heat slowly and carefully to a scaling
heat, that is a lemon heat (1,800 deg.-2,000 deg.F.), and forge uniformly.
Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundry
coke, broken in small pieces, in an ordinary blacksmith forge with
a few bricks laid over the top to form a hollow fire. The bricks
should be thoroughl...
Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats are
now made for treating high-speed steels. We recommend them for
treating all kinds of Blue Chip tools and particularly the above
class. After tools re...
Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes should
be heated depends upon the shape, size and use for which they are
intended. Generally, they should not be heated to quite as high a
heat as lathe tool...
A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tungsten,
its red-hardness properties depending on chromium and cobalt instead
of tungsten. It is known as P. R. K-33 steel. It does not require
the high te...
Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are given
by a maker whose steel is probably typical of a number of different
makes, so that they will be found useful in other cases as well.
These include ...
Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly and
thoroughly to a lemon heat. Do not forge at a lower heat. Do not
let the steel cool below a bright cherry red while forging. After
the tool is dresse...