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CASE-HARDENING OR SURFACE-CARBURIZING





Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufactured at the Armory and all forgings for other ordnance establishments are packed in charcoal, lime or suitable material and annealed before being trans...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of producing a high-carbon surface, or case, upon a low carbon steel article. Wrenches, locomotive link motions, gun mechanisms, balls and ball races, automob...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by those special elements which exist as double carbides in steel. For example, manganese exists as manganese carbide in combination with the iron carbide. ...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also the slowest, but is often used mixed with something that will evolve large volumes of carbon monoxide or hydrocarbon gas on being heated. A great variety o...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from the pot, especially if the case is of any appreciable depth. The texture of carbon steel will be weakened by the prolonged high heat of carburizing, so tha...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different packing materials has a different effect upon the work in which it is heated. Charcoal by itself will give a rather light case. Mixed with raw bone it will...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the box by dumping the whole contents into the quenching tank. It is common practice to leave a sieve or wire basket to catch the work, allowing the carburizin...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in case-hardening--possibly more so than in ordinary tempering. One reason for this is because of the large quantities of pieces usually dumped into the tank ...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slightly above the critical temperature of the case, this temperature corresponding ordinarily to that of steel having a carbon content of 85 points, When th...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most common quenching materials for case-hardening. Water is used for ordinary work, salt water for work which must be extremely hard on the surface, and oil fo...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page 88, consists of having a slowly revolving, properly heated, cylindrical retort into which illuminating gas (a mixture of various hydrocarbons) is continu...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thickness of 0.0005 in. Less than this does not give a continuous coating. The plating bath used has a temperature of 170 deg.F. A voltage of 4.1 is to be mai...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, Dayton, Ohio, they have a large quantity of small shafts, Fig. 40, that are to be case-hardened at A while the ends B and C are to be left soft. Formerly...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufacture of automobile and other parts which are likely to be subjected to rough usage. The strength and ability to withstand hard knocks depend to a very c...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the introduction of carbon into the case of the article to be hardened. In the first place the chances of success are increased by selecting as few brands o...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the facilities available in the locality where the shop is situated and the nature and quantity of the work to be done. The furnaces can be heated with produce...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactory for closing up the boxes, and by observing the appearance of the work when taken out we can gage the suitability of the methods employed, for unless th...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for carburizing have been generally recognized in the past from points of view as close temperature regulation, decreased attendance, and greater convenience...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-treatment department, there is none that offers greater possibilities for profitable returns than the systematic cleaning, blending and reworking of artif...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a cast-iron screen which forms a table or apron for the furnace. Directly beneath this table is located one of the steel conveyor carts, shown in Fig. 43, wh...